We have done multiple home projects like Lighting LED with Raspberry Pi & Python script , Lighting LED with Raspberry Pi & Cayenne , AC Light control with Raspberry Pi & Cayenne , Surveillance Camera & email notification on motion detection.

In order to do home Surveillance Camera with live feed using Open CV, we setup opencv on raspberry pi. There are several ways to install opencv in raspberry pi, however the easiest way to install opencv on raspberry pi will be pip install opencv raspberry pi.

Can we install opencv on raspberry pi zero w, yes we can do that however considering the memory and performance we will be using Raspberry pi 3 B+. Running opencv raspberry pi zero is not a good idea. The installation will take long time and overall performance is bad compared to raspberry pi 3 opencv performance.

This opencv raspberry pi tutorial we will cover the initial setup of raspberry , the pre-requisite package installs , setup opencv virtualenv raspberry pi.

We are using Raspberry Pi 3  model B+, which is the latest Pi available in market & this is having good specifications as listed below

  • Quad Core 1.2GHz Broadcom BCM2837 64bit CPU
  • 1GB RAM
  • BCM43438 wireless LAN and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) on board
  • 100 Base Ethernet
  • 40-pin extended GPIO
  • 4 USB 2 ports
  • 4 Pole stereo output and composite video port
  • Full size HDMI
  • CSI camera port for connecting a Raspberry Pi camera
  • DSI display port for connecting a Raspberry Pi touchscreen display
  • Micro SD port for loading your operating system and storing data
  • Upgraded switched Micro USB power source up to 2.5A

Components needed:

  1. A Micro USB Power supply 
  2. Micro SD Card ( Recommended 8 GB or above)
  3. TV or Computer Monitor
  4. HDMI cable
  5. Ethernet Cable ( If don't have wireless)

Follow the step by step instruction in the article http://www.thetips4you.com/setup-raspberry-pi-3-for-your-iot-projects/ to prepare the Raspberry pi if you don't have the OS already installed.

How to install OpenCV on Raspberry Pi 3 NOOBS:

Raspberry Pi opencv install script is using PIP so first we need to enable  PIP in RPI.

For installing pip for python 3 use the beow commands:

sudo apt update

sudo apt install python3-pip or sudo apt install python -pip

Check the pip version using pip --version

Before installing opencv on raspberry pi , lets prepare the Pi with pre-requisites.

sudo apt-get install libhdf5-dev libhdf5-serial-dev

sudo apt-get install libqtwebkit4 libqt4-test

How to easily install opencv on raspberry pi ? , The easiest way is with out virtual environment . The draw back is that you cannot run different version of Open CV in isolated environment.Most of use the open cv on one raspberry pi for main uses raspberry pi image processing,  live video and other face recognition using raspberry pi 3 projects.

Install OpenCV in Raspberry Pi 3 b+

The below simple command will install opencv with out virtual environment.

sudo pip install opencv-contrib-python

It may take few mins , some time near to one hour to complete the installation. Raspberry pi image processing opencv is ready.

To install opencv on raspberry pi with virtual environment refer the article https://www.pyimagesearch.com/2018/09/26/install-opencv-4-on-your-raspberry-pi/

If your SD card have low space when installing opencv in raspberry pi, you can remove some of the unwanted software and files for PI , use the below steps for it.

sudo apt-get -y purge wolfram-engine
sudo apt-get -y purge libreoffice*
sudo apt-get -y clean
sudo apt-get -y autoremove

With this tutorial you know opencv download and how to run opencv on raspberry pi 3. Make the pi ready for next project with Open CV.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects that contain embedded technology to communicate and sense or interact with their internal states or the external environment.The Internet of Things refers to a network of internet-connected objects like vehicles, devices and buildings which are embedded with sensors and electronics to allow them to both collect and transfer information to your cloud storage, analyze the data.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

We have discussed about what is IoT and how IoT works in the linked articles.

IoT Technology Stack

IoT stack architecture consist of 4 layers as below.

  • Sensors/Devices - Sensors and devices are placed in field and capture the information.
  • Gateway - Gateway provides the bridge between IoT devices in the field, the cloud, and user equipment such as smartphones. The IoT gateway provides a communication link between the field and the cloud and can provide offline services and real-time control over the devices in the field. Simple IoT gateway definition we can say IoT gateway aggregates sensor data, translates between sensor protocols, processes sensor data before sending it.
  • Communication/Protocols - Internet Protocol is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.The interconnected devices communicate by using lightweight IoT gateway protocols like bus-based (DDS, REST, XMPP) and broker based (AMPQ, CoAP, MQTT, JMI) that don't require extensive CPU resources.
  • Cloud and Analytics - IoT collect data from multiple sources and store it in their cloud network for further processing, analyzed using data analytics.

See the below for the IoT architecture diagram

IoT Technology Stack


What is IoT protocols?

Internet Protocols is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.The interconnected devices communicate by using lightweight IoT gateway protocols like bus-based (DDS, REST, XMPP) and broker based (AMPQ, CoAP, MQTT, JMI) that don't require extensive CPU resources.Wide range of technologies that fall within the IoT, there are a large number of IoT Protocols which are available and used. Lets see the major IoT protocols and the IoT protocols comparison.

Types of IoT protocols:

We can classify the protocols based on which OSI layer they belong to example.

  • Physical/Infrastructure
  • Transport/Communication
  • Data Transfer
  • Device Management

We will see commonly used messaging protocol in IoT.

IoT Protocols and Standards:

Most used IoT protocol and popular IoT protocols are listed below.

  • MQTT
  • CoAP
  • Zigbee
  • Bluetooth
  • AMQP
  • Z-Wave
  • IPv/IPv4
  • GSM


What is MQTT?

MQTT stands for MQ Telemetry Transport. It is a publish/subscribe, extremely simple and lightweight messaging protocol, designed for constrained devices and low-bandwidth, high-latency or unreliable networks. The design principles are to minimise network bandwidth and device resource requirements whilst also attempting to ensure reliability and some degree of assurance of delivery. These principles also turn out to make the protocol ideal of the emerging “machine-to-machine” (M2M) or “Internet of Things” world of connected devices, and for mobile applications where bandwidth and battery power are at a premium.

MQTT(Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) is one of most used communication protocols in iot and it is an ISO standard (ISO/IEC PRF 20922) publish-subscribe-based messaging protocol. It works on top of the TCP/IP protocol. It is designed for connections with remote locations where a "small code footprint" is required or the network bandwidth is limited. The publish-subscribe messaging pattern requires a message broker.An MQTT IoT protocol system consists of clients communicating with a server, often called a "broker". A client may be either a publisher of information or a subscriber. Each client can connect to the broker.Clients only interact with a broker, but a system may contain several broker servers that exchange data based on their current subscribers' topics.

Reference: mqtt.org,  mqtt wiki.

CoAP-Constrained Application Protocol:

The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a specialized web transfer protocol for use with constrained nodes and constrained networks in the Internet of Things. The protocol is designed for machine-to-machine (M2M) applications such as smart energy and building automation.

CoAP was developed as an Internet Standards Document, RFC 7252. The Internet of Things will need billions of nodes, many of which will need to be inexpensive. CoAP has been designed to work on microcontrollers with as low as 10 KiB of RAM and 100 KiB of code space

Reference: http://coap.technology/

What is Zigbee?

The ZigBee Alliance has developed a very low-cost, very low-powerconsumption, two-way, wireless communications standard. Solutions adopting theZigBee standard will be embedded in consumer electronics, home and building
automation, industrial controls, PC peripherals, medical sensor applications, toys,and games.

Zigbee is the wireless language that everyday devices use to connect to one another. Zigbee is an IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios, such as for home automation, medical device data collection, and other low-power low-bandwidth needs, designed for small scale projects which need wireless connection. Hence, Zigbee is a low-power, low data rate, and close proximity wireless ad hoc network.

References: https://www.zigbee.org/

AMQP -Advanced Message Queuing Protocol

AMQP is the Internet Protocol for Business Messaging.The Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) is an open standard for passing business messages between applications or organizations. AMQP is a binary, application layer protocol, designed to efficiently support a wide variety of messaging applications and communication patterns.

Reference: https://www.amqp.org/

We have seen iot protocols mqtt and other major useful protocols in this  iot protocols tutorial . We have left the details of few common ones like Bluetooth , ipv4, GSM (cellular) etc. Are there any open source iot protocols ? Find out about open source IoT platforms here.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

In simple terms we can say IoT is a system of things integrated with sensors, softwares, electronics which are connected to each other & can exchange data or Information with other connected devices.

What is a Gateway?

A gateway is a piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications for telecommunications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another. Gateways are distinct from routers or switches in that they communicate using more than one protocol and can operate at any of the seven layers of the open systems interconnection model (OSI).The term gateway can also loosely refer to a computer or computer program configured to perform the tasks of a gateway, such as a default gateway or router.

What is a IoT Gateway?

As IoT grows and billions of connected devices enter the world, one of the most critical components of future internet of things systems may be a device known as an IoT gateway. The importance of IoT gateways is understandable .

An Internet of Things (IoT) gateway is an integral part of an IoT ecosystem, handling communication with local sensors and remote users among a suite of other functions.

What is IoT edge gateway ? An Internet of things gateway provides the bridge between IoT devices in the field, the cloud, and user equipment such as smartphones. The IoT gateway provides a communication link between the field and the cloud and can provide offline services and real-time control over the devices in the field. Simple IoT gateway definition we can say IoT gateway aggregates sensor data, translates between sensor protocols, processes sensor data before sending it.

The interconnected devices communicate by using lightweight IoT gateway protocols like bus-based (DDS, REST, XMPP) and broker based (AMPQ, CoAP, MQTT, JMI) that don't require extensive CPU resources.To handle any needed protocol conversion, database storage or decision making, IoT nodes use separate IoT gateways in order to supplement the low-intelligence of devices.

The sensors generate huge amount of data per second and IoT gateway hardware provides a place to preprocess that data locally before sending it on to the cloud. When data is collected and analyzed at the edge, it minimizes the amount of data that needs to be forwarded on to the cloud and this is the use of iot gateway or we can say IoT gateway functionality.

IoT Gateway Architecture:

If you are thinking why you need an IoT Gateway, With IoT solutions, we have to deal with tons of devices working in the field and because the nature of these devices is very different like web, desktop, smart phones etc we need an intermediate architectural element that will act as a proxy between the world of field devices and the enterprise data center. That's why What we need is an IoT gateway.

The IoT gateway software or IoT gateway hardware is not just a dump proxy that forwards data from sensors to backend services. Sending all the information collected by sensors to the cloud or storage data center would be highly ineffective in terms of performance and network utilization. The IoT gateway will perform the pre-processing of information in the field, before they’re sent to the data center and it is the main function of the iot gateway.

An IoT ecosystem is made up of many components, or layers. The bottom layer contains the sensors and devices. The gateway acts as a secure intermediary between these sensors, devices and the cloud. The top layer handles overall monitoring and management of the IoT ecosystem, with analytics of the collected and persisted data, including applications.

IoT gateway architecture

IoT gateways consist of a hardware platform and an operating system and expose a rich set of services for your IoT application. The gateway software installed on the device is responsible for collecting data from the sensor, pre-processing that data, and sending the results to the data center.

IoT gateway architecture

A large number of manufacturers are involved in the IoT gateways design and production and some of iot gateway providers or iot gateway hardware manufacturers include CISCO, Harman International Industries, Advantech, ADLINK, Supermicro, Intel (intel iot gateway) , and NXP.

Are there any opensource IoT gateway or free iot gateway available ? Thingsboard is a iot gateway open source. The ThingsBoard IoT Gateway is an open-source solution that allows you to integrate IoT devices connected to legacy and third-party systems with ThingsBoard. ThingsBoard is an open-source IoT platform that enables rapid development, management and scaling of IoT applications. Refer the link for more details.

Refer the link for iot gateway wiki.

What Is IoT?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

We are going to see IoT in everything. As per Gartner By 2020, IoT technology will be in 95% of electronics for new product designs.With the technology evolution surrounding the IoT, it will become increasingly possible to add IoT features to a product at minimal cost. As IoT is going be a major player in market and most of people and enterprise are also worried about security challenges of the internet of things. There are multiple threats and challenges of iot and how to face the iot challenges and solutions are identified.While security challenges in iot need to be sorted,due to challenges in determining security risks and exposure for IoT, current budgets for security spend is minimal.Most organizations already face information risks from Internet of Things (IoT) devices. In fact, almost 20% of organizations have detected an IoT-based attack in the past three years.

IoT Risks And Challenges:

We will list down the top iot security challenges in this tutorial.As all know security is one of the major problems with iot and key IoT adoption barriers for the enterprises.


Security and Privacy:

Security is an essential pillar of the Internet and one that to be equally essential and the most significant challenge for the IoT. As Increase the number of connected devices increases the opportunity to exploit security vulnerabilities, as poorly designed IoT devices can expose user data to theft by leaving data streams inadequately protected.A latest research claims that by 2020, 25% of cyber attacks will target IoT devices.

Major security issues in iot have been raised that the IoT is being developed rapidly without appropriate consideration of the profound security challenges involved.Most of the technical security concerns are similar to those of conventional servers, workstations and smartphones. Security is the biggest concern in adopting Internet of things technology. As the Internet of things spreads widely, cyber attacks are likely to become an increasingly physical threat.The vulnerabilities include weak authentication (IoT devices are being used with default credentials), unencrypted messages sent between devices, lack of verification or encryption of software updates.

In a January 2014 article in Forbes, cyber-security columnist Joseph Steinberg listed many Internet-connected appliances that can already “spy on people in their own homes” including televisions, kitchen appliances,[185] cameras etc.Welcome to the era of the Internet of Things (IoT), where digitally connected devices are encroaching on every aspect of our lives, including our homes, offices, cars and even our bodies. To deal with all these unique challenges, there is a need for strict approach to security. A lot of users are ultimately going to compare the cost against the security.

IoT creates unique challenges to privacy, many that go beyond the data privacy issues, consumer devices such as tracking devices for phones and cars as well as smart televisions are capable of tracking your day today activities .The Internet of things’ potential for major privacy invasion is a concern.Consumers take a more active interest in protecting their privacy and demand IoT devices to be screened for potential security vulnerabilities and privacy violations before purchasing them.Consumers are increasingly worried about privacy risks and security concerns that outweigh the value propositions of IoT devices and they opt to postpone their planned purchases or service subscriptions of IoT devices or soutions. As Security and Privacy are major issues in IoT, Enterprises when developing their IoT systems really need to work on IoT security issues and solutions.

Regulations and Standards:

One of the key drivers of the IoT is data. The success of the idea of connecting devices to make them more efficient is dependent upon access to and storage & processing of data. Companies working on the IoT collect data from multiple sources and store it for further processing.Lack of proper Reguation and standards will open up the possibility for for privacy and security dangers. IoT regulation depends on the country. Several standards for the IoT industry are actually being established relating to automobiles because most concerns arising from use of connected cars apply to healthcare devices as well. Lack of standards and documented best practices have a greater impact than just limiting the potential of IoT devices.These are because of still early days for IoT in government and unclear business models, despite strong value proposition.Without the right standards to guide and regulate manufacturers the developers may design products that operate in disruptive ways and If they are configured or designed poorly, these devices may have huge consequences on resources they connect.

Existing and upcoming privacy laws, including the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), will dramatically impact an organization’s strategy, purpose and methods for processing personal data in IoT.

Lack of Interoperability:

Another one of the main internet of things challenges is IoT devices lacking interoperability.With numerous vendors, OEMs, and service providers in IoT business, it has become really difficult to maintain interoperability between different IoT systems.Sensors and connectivity are the integral components of IoT. But not every IoT soutions are equipped with advanced sensors and networking capabilities to effectively communicate and share data between different builds and manafucturers. It will be really challenging to identify a easy solution for this. However from end user perspective this is a really needed capability in a IoT devices.

In short as part of this artice we have seen the iot security problems and iot challenges in the real world.

In the tutorial Wireless Remote Control Lighting System | Smart Lighting Control Systems I have done the control of AC light using Raspberry Pi and Cayenne App. I got a request from my friend to control the Water Pumping motor at a specific interval. Currently they have to switch on and off the motor manually. So we will be working on AC motor and Raspberry pi which will act as automatic watering system. We are not making any plant watering system here.

You could have seen other articles on controlling DC Motors Using Python With a Raspberry Pi, however here we are using the Raspberry Pi to control AC electric power . The connections are almost similar to the light control system, you need to replace the light with motor and we will be using Python script.

Components Needed:

  1. Raspberry Pi
  2. 5V Relay Module
  3. AC Motor/Water Pump
  4. Connecting wires
  5. Power supply for Pi


Automatic Water Pump Using Raspberry Pi:

For making automate motor control with raspberry pi, first connect the VCC of the Relay to GPIO Pin 2 and Relay GND to GPIO 39 which is GND in Pi. Connect the Raspberry Pi GPIO Pin 19 to Relay IN pin which will control the NO and NC connection of Relay . Connect the AC line 120/230V AC from Plug point to COM of Relay and other wire from NO or NC on relay to the Motor. The neutral from pug point will go directly to Motor.

Raspberry Pi Motor Control

Python Script For Raspberry Pi 3 Automatic Watering System:

The raspberry pi ac motor control will run based on interval we define in the script. What we are doing here is to capture the last run time of the motor in to a notepad and check that with current time. If the motor last run was  1 hour before the motor will start pumping the water for 15 min and will stop.

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import os
import sys
import datetime
import time
from time import sleep
GPIO.setup(17, GPIO.OUT)
runhour = (time.strftime("%H%M%S"))
add = 4000
file1 = open("/home/pi/Motor_Running_Project.txt","r",encoding = 'utf-8')
f = file1.read(6)
intrunhour = int (f)
while True:

now = int(time.strftime("%H%M%S"))
x = now - intrunhour

       if x>=0:

         print("program started")
         intrunhour = now + add
         nextrun = str (intrunhour)
         file1 = open("/home/pi/Motor_Running_Project.txt","w")

                print("program not started")


The Python program is also attached Motor Control With Raspberry Pi_Project.py.

For DC Motor Control With Raspberry Pi I will update in new tutorial.

What Is Digital Transformation?

Digital business transformation is the process of exploiting digital technologies and supporting capabilities to create a robust new digital business model. Digital Transformation is not necessarily about digital technology, but about the fact that technology, which is digital, allows people to solve their traditional problems. And they prefer this digital solution to the old solution. Digital transformation helps the organization through integration of digital technology into all areas of a business, fundamentally changing how you operate and deliver value to customers. It is also a cultural change.

Gartner predicts that by 2020, more than 30 billion devices will be connected to the Internet. The advent of digital business expands and evolves as the opportunities, threats and constraints of leveraging a business ecosystem. A digital business ecosystem is a marketplace of functions and information. It is a network construct whereby multiple value forms are exchanged for the benefit of all participants.

Digital transformation will look different for every company. Why digital transformation matters? There are a several reasons for a business may undergo digital transformation, but the most likely reason is also that they have to fight for survival and make their business future proof. Technology has driven this shift, and companies that want to succeed must understand how to merge technology with strategy. In this tutorial we will see what are the main top digital transformation trends which in turns gives you the details of  best technology to learn to keep stay ahead in technology.

Source: Pixabay

Digital Transformation Trends 2019:

The future is going to be exiting and unpredictable. Currently most of the big companies are putting lot of efforts and research on new technologies. The Top 5 future technology predictions 2020 are :

Autonomous Things or Intelligent Things:

Most of the organizations are gathering information to build their AI strategies, The use of AI to enhance decision making, reinvent business models and ecosystems and increase the customer experience will payoff for their digital initiatives. Generally AI systems magically perform any intellectual task that a human can do and dynamically learn much as humans do at best. AI consisting of highly scoped machine-learning solutions that target a specific task that can be optimized.

Autonomous things abbreviated AuT, or the Internet of autonomous things abbreviated as IoAT, is an emerging term for the technological developments that are expected to bring computers into the physical environment as autonomous entities without human direction, freely moving and interacting with humans and other objects.Autonomous things such as robots drones and autonomous vehicles uses Artificial intelligence to automate functions previously performed by humans. As an eg: the autonomous car addresses the main existing safety issues and creates new issues. It is expected to be much safer than existing vehicles, by eliminating the single most dangerous element which is the driver. Intelligent things can respond to real world conditions automatically.Intelligent things use AI and machine learning to interact in a more intelligent way with people and surroundings.

Some other examples are Intel’s use of a drone swarm for the opening ceremony of the Winter Olympic Games in 2018 and a plan for Dubai to use autonomous police vehicles that can deploy their own drones for surveillance.

Digital Twins:

According to Gartner, a digital twin refers to the digital representation of a real-world entity or system.DTO (Digital Twins of Organizations) is a dynamic software model that relies on operational or other data to understand how an organization operationalizes its business model, connects with its current state, deploys resources and responds to changes to deliver expected customer value. Digital twin refers to a digital replica of physical assets (physical twin), processes, people, places, systems and devices that can be used for various purposes.

Below are few definitions of digital twins, Refer the WiKi link and Gartner link.

Definitions of digital twins used in existing literature
Definition Authors
“A Digital Twin is an integrated multiphysics, multiscale, probabilistic simulation of an as-built vehicle or system that uses the best available physical models, sensor updates, fleet history, etc., to mirror the life of its corresponding flying twin” Glaessgen & Stargel, (2012)
“Coupled model of the real machine that operates in the cloud platform and simulates the health condition with an integrated knowledge from both data driven analytical algorithms as well as other available physical knowledge” Lee, Lapira, Bagheri, an Kao, (2013)
“digital twin is a real mapping of all components in the product life cycle using physical data, virtual data and interaction data between them” Tao, Sui, Liu, Qi, Zhang, Song, Guo, Lu & Nee, (2018)
“a dynamic virtual representation of a physical object or system across its lifecycle, using real-time data to enable understanding, learning and reasoning” Bolton, McColl-Kennedy, Cheung, Gallen, Orsingher, Witell & Zaki, (2018)
“Using a digital copy of the physical system to perform real-time optimization” Söderberg, R., Wärmefjord, K., Carlson, J. S., & Lindkvist, L. (2017)
“A digital twin is a real time digital replica of a physical device” Bacchiega (2017)


Digital twins integrate artificial intelligence, machine learning and software analytics  to create living digital simulation models that update and change as their physical counterparts change. A digital twin continuously learns and updates itself from multiple sources to represent its near real-time status, working condition or position.


What is blockchain : Blockchain  is  an encrypted, distributed computer filing system , it is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography. Block chain certainly is real however may not be completely ready in 2018 for adoption in every industry. Blockchain is going to be technology that will make a real impact across industry sectors along with IoT. Blockchain is the invention from brain of a single person or a group of person know by pseudonym, Satoshi Nakamoto. Digital currency , Bitcoin is first majority used purpose however now industry is finding the potential use of it as technology. Blockchain is getting used in Cybersecurity, healthcare, financial sectors etc. for securing health records, control disease, patient data, cryptocurrency wallets.

Blockchain technology holds the promise to change industries, and although mosty we see often around financial opportunities. Blockchain has many potential applications in government, healthcare, content distribution, supply chain and more. However, many blockchain technologies are immature and unproven, and are largely unregulated.

How bitcoin works?

Bitcoin, probably the most well-known example of blockchain, records cryptocurrency transactions in a chain-of-blocks data structure where a block is a group of transaction records added every few minutes in a never-ending series. The ledger records the sequence of each transaction and every “coin” (virtual currency stored as information bits).

Immersive Experience:

Immersion into virtual reality is a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world. The perception is created by surrounding the user of the VR system in images, sound or other stimuli that provide an engrossing total environment.An immersive experience is an illusory environment that completely surrounds you such that you feel that you are inside it and part of it. Augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality are changing the way that people perceive and interact with the digital world.Whether we are playing a video game on our smartphone, video conferencing on our tablet, or watching sports on our Virtual Reality (VR) headset Immersion enhances everyday experiences, making them more realistic, engaging, and satisfying on all our devices.

Over the next years the focus will be on mixed reality, which is emerging as the immersive experience of choice, where the user interacts with digital and real-world objects while maintaining a presence in the physical world.

Augmented Analytics:

Augmented analytics focuses on a specific area of augmented intelligence, using machine learning (ML) to transform how analytics content is developed, consumed and shared. Augmented analytics is the future of data and analytics. As per Gartner Augmented analytics automates the process of data preparation, insight generation and insight visualization, eliminating the need for professional data scientists in many situations.