In this article we will talk about what is traditional project management ?, what is agile project management? and difference between traditional and agile project management.

What is a project?

project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to achieve unique product or services.

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools & technique to the project activities to meet the project requirement. Project management enables the organization to execute the projects effectively & efficiently.

Project Management Process Groups:

A classic project management Processes are grouped together in to five process groups. to differentiate between traditional and modern project management we should know about the project management process first. The Logical grouping of project management processes to achieve specific project objectives are called Project Management Process Groups. Below are the five process groups and basic principles of traditional project management.

  1. Initiating Process group: The processes part of initiating process group are performed at the time of new project or new phase of existing project.
  2. Planning Process group: The processes part of planning process groups helps in defining the plan for the project like defining scope, planning for schedule, cost, procurement, communications etc.  This helps in defining the course for the project to achieve its objectives.
  3. Executing Process group: The processes in executing process group is performed to complete the defined work as per plan to satisfy the project stakeholders.
  4. Monitoring & Controlling Process group: As part of monitoring & controlling process group, the performance of project is tracked, monitored, reviewed & controlled. The variation from plan is derived & identify what changes are required to bring back the project on track.
  5. Closing Process group: The processes part of closing process group are done at the time of closing the project to close the project formally.

Traditional project management:

Traditional project management or Waterfall project management is mainly used on projects where activities are completed in a sequence and there are rarely any changes.

The concept of traditional project management is based on predictable experience and predictable tools. Each project follows the same lifecycle, which includes five stages: initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing.The ultimate goal of waterfall project management was to make sure all the tasks are carried out in a predetermined orderly sequence.

The waterfall approach is linear where all the phases of a process occur in sequence. It depends on predictable tools and predictable experience. Every project follows the same life cycle which includes the stages.

Gantt chart is the most important technique in traditional project management. Gantt chart gives you a simple overview of a project. It is one of the most useful ways of presenting tasks and activities of the project on a timeline.

Agile project management and agile software development have become hot topics in recent years, however Agile might be the best approach for some projects, other projects still require the rigor of a more traditional approach.

The entire project is planned upfront and any scope for changing requirements is not appreciated. Acceptance of changes is one of the major difference factor in traditional project management vs agile. We can also say agile as modern project management , let see how differ traditional project management vs modern project management .

 

Traditional Project Management

What is Agile?

In simple terms agile meaning is able to move quickly and easily.

Agile software development is an approach to software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing and cross-functional teams and their customer(s)/end user(s).[1] It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, empirical knowledge, and continual improvement, and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change.

Scrum is a type of agile methodology. It is essentially an agile process framework.Scrum follows a set of fixed length iterations in which the product is developed. Each of these iterations are called as Sprint. Typically, each sprint is fixed somewhere within  1 week to 4 week.

Agile Project Management:

Agile project management is an approach based on delivering requirements iteratively and incrementally throughout the project life cycle.Agile approach shifts more quickly to execution and spends less time on planning.The basic concept behind Agile software development is that it delves into evolving changes and collaborative effort to bring out results rather than a predefined process.Scrum and Kanban are two of the most widely used Agile frameworks.Agile approaches empower those involved, and agile philosophy concentrates on empowered people and their interactions and early and constant delivery of value into an enterprise and this is one of the main difference between agile and waterfall project.

Why Agile ?

Some of the key benefit from project management Agile Methodology is below.

  • Adaptability
  • Time-to-market
  • Reduced costs
  • Customer satisfaction

Agile vs Waterfall project management

 

Agile vs Waterfall:

It is not always not necessary to use agile approach. A blended approach can bring synergy utilizing best of both Agile and Waterfall.

Key difference between agile vs traditional project management are

  • Waterfall is used when project is relatively familiar where as agile is used when project is relatively unfamiliar.
  • TPM or Traditional Project management is used when project have defined clear scope and deliverables where are Agile is used when there are  evolving changes in scope.
  • TPM is more of negotiation with customer where are Agile is a collaboration with customer.

As part of this tutorial we have covered agile project management vs project management . We will talk more about scrum and Kanban in coming tutorials.

Project Management:

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools & technique to the project activities to meet the project requirement. Project management enables the organization to execute the projects effectively & efficiently.

PMBoK has released 6th edition in 2018 and all project management enthusiast are looking for pmp 6th edition questions and answers to clear pmp exam.

You can refer the links project management questions and answers and project manager scenario based interview questions and answers for some of the sample pmp exam questions 6th edition.

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to produce a unique product or service

The characteristics of projects are

  • Specific start and end date
  • Has a defined objective
  • Series of tasks to achieve a defined outcome or objective

Projects are undertaken to full-fill objectives by producing deliverables. The deliverables may be tangible or intangible.

In this article I have tried to cover pmp practice exam with answers and hope this is useful for Project Managers and those who are pursuing PMP certification.  There are other pmp simulation exam free and other free practice tests for pmp online available however here I have given you 20 sample pmp exam questions and answers to test your knowledge.

1.Which is the BEST definition of quality?
A. A product made of very expensive materials and cost more.
B. A product made with a lot of care by the team who built it
C. A product that satisfies the requirements of the people who pay for it
D. A product that passes all of its tests and no bugs found.

Answer : C

2. Which of the following is NOT an input to Perform Quality Control?
A. Deliverables
B. Work Performance Measurements
C. Quality Checklists
D. Validated Changes

Answer : D

3. You are the project manager for a railroad construction project. Your sponsor has asked you for a forecast
for the cost of project completion. The project has a total budget of $80,000 and CPI of .95. The project has spent
$25,000 of its budget so far. How much more money do you plan to spend on the project?
A. $59,210
B. $80,000
C. $84,210
D. $109,210

Answer : A

4. You are managing a software project. During a walkthrough of newly implemented
functionality, your team shows you a new feature that they have added to help make the
workflow in the product easier for your client. The client didn’t ask for the feature, but it
does look like it will make the product easier to use. The team developed it on their own time
because they wanted to make the client happy. You know this change would never have made
it through change control. What is this an example of?
A. Gold plating
B. Scope creep
C. Alternatives Analysis
D. Schedule Variance

Answer : A

5. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Project Management Plan?
A. Collection of subsidiary plans
B. Formal, written communication
C. A bar chart that shows the order of tasks and their resource assignments
D. Must be approved by project sponsor

Answer : C

6. When is the BEST time to have project kickoff meetings?
A. At the beginning of the project
B. When each deliverable is created
C. At the start of each phase
D. When the Communications Management plan is approved

Answer : C

7. The terms of union contracts are considered ______________ in your project plan.
A. Assumptions
B. Constraints
C. Requirements
D. Collective bargaining agreements

Answer : B

8. A Project Manager is at the project kick-off meeting. He confidently states the vision and mission for the
project. This PM is exhibiting the following leadership style:
A. Hierarchal
B. Authoritarian
C. Charismatic
D. Associative

Answer : C

9. Which of the following models of conflict resolution allows a cooling off period, but seldom resolves the
issue in the long term?
A. Problem solving
B. Withdrawal
C. Forcing
D. Smoothing

Answer : B

10. Group brainstorming encourages all of the following except:
A. Team building
B. Analysis of alternatives
C. Convergent thinking
D. Uninhibited verbalization

Answer : C

11. Crashing, and Fast tracking are techniques used in the following process:
A. Schedule Development
B. Activity Definition
C. Create WBS
D. Resource Allocation

Answer : A

12. A project manager is assigned a project with a team that has already been selected. The first thing the
project manager should find out about the team is?
A. What is each team member's favorite color
B. Each team member's objectives for working on the project
C. A list of each team member's tasks
D. Each team member's role in the project plan

Answer : D

13. Which of the following is not correct:
A. PMO - Program Management Office
B. RBS - Resource Breakdown Structure
C. RAM - Resource Assignment Matrix
D. RFP - Request for Proposal
E. TQM - Total Quality Management

Answer : C

14. Which of the following Human Resource process generates Roles & Responsibilities :
A. Human Resource Planning
B. Acquire Project Team
C. Develop Project Team
D. Manage Project Team

Answer : A

15. What is the Delphi technique?
A. A simulation technique.
B. A mathematical analysis.
C. A constrained optimization method.
D. A consensuas technique.

Answer : A

16. You have negotiated a major deliverable with a contractor several of your colleagues
have utilized in the past without problems. Its is critical the contactor meet the December 4th
deliverable.this is an example of :
A. Objective
B. Goal
C. Constraint.
D. Assumption.

Answer : D

17. As the project manager you will be required to report periodically to upper
management on the progress of the project. What item below will you require to report
your progress as the basis for the budget ,schedule ,resource allocation and scope
definition.
A. Precedence diagramming method.
B. project character.
C. Work breakdown schedule.
D. Project management plan.

Answer : C

18. Out puts from the initiation process includes:
A. project manager assigned ,project character, and product description.
B. constraints, assumptions, and product description.
C. Project character ,Constraints, and assumptions.
D.scope statement, project manager identified, and product description.

Answer : C

19. In which motivation theory do hygiene factors play a part?
A. Herzberg's
B. McGregor's
C. Theory Y
D. Maslow's hierarchy

Answer : A

20. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, self-actualization means self-fulfillment, growth and:
A. affection.
B. learning.
C. security.
D. stability.

Answer : B

Evaluate yourself with the above free pmp exam questions 6th edition, how much you have scored for project manager interview questions and answers will give you the idea to benchmark yourself and progress your learning in PMP. Looking for more pmp practice exam 2018, et me know through comments I will share more questionnaire.

 


As part of project integration management knowledge area and processes tutorial we have see that the process have 7 processes as listed below and Perform integrated change control is one of the processes.

  • Develop project charter
  • Develop project management plan
  • Direct and manage project work
  • Manage project knowledge
  • Monitor and control project work
  • Perform integrated change control
  • Close project or phase


In this tutorial we will look deeper in to integrated change management, the importance of integrated change control and what are the main objectives of integrated change control?. Before we start lets understand what is change management.

What is Change Management?

What is a change ? A change is an act or process through which something becomes different, in IT terminology any change in infrastructure, software, processes, etc . Change is inevitable and companies, projects, programs undergo changes.

Change management is the system approach in dealing the changes using the tools and techniques for efficient and prompt handing of change requests in the IT infrastructure. This is the minimize the impact of the change on organizational goals, deliverable, service.Change management can ensure standardized methods, processes and procedures which are used for all changes, facilitate efficient and prompt handling of all changes, and maintain the proper balance between the need for change and the potential detrimental impact of changes.

Change Management

What is Integrated Change Management?

Integrated Change Management is to achieve the desired target state by integration of the organizational and individual change processes. What is integrated change control? Perform Integrated Change Control is the processes in Project integration knowledge area and it is the is the process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes and managing changes to deliverable s, organizational process assets, project documents,  project management plan and communicating the decisions to stakeholders. Project change management process reviews all change requests , evaluate the risks associated and determines the resolution of the change request.

Perform integrated change management is conducted from start of the project and Project Manager is complete responsible for it. Change requests can impact the scope, project management plan, project documents etc. Changes are required to formally controlled after the baselines are defined.

Change Control vs Change Management?

We cannot differentiate much on change management and change control. We could say Change Control is a subset of the Change Management process. As per ITIL Change Management aims to control the lifecycle of all Changes. Refer the below figure for understanding process overview of ITIL Change Management .

Change Control Board Process Flow

Change control is an important and it effectively emphasize assessing the business impact and ramifications of a change and the communication and coordination activities involved in evaluating, approving and implementing a change.Change control is all about critically evaluating each suggested change to ensure that it is the right thing to do.

Any proposed change must be approved in the change management process. While change management makes the process happen, the decision authority is the Change Advisory Board (CAB), which generally is composed of people from other functions within the organization. The main activities of the change management are:

  • Create Change Requests
  • Managing changes and the change process
  • Approval from CAB and the CAB/Emergency committee
  • Reviewing and closing of Requests for Change (RFCs) post implementation.
  • Reporting and communicating information to stakeholders.

Perform Integrated Change Control Inputs:

Change requests and Project management plan is one of the major inputs for this process. Below are the inputs listed.


a)Project Management Plan. The sub documents in PP are

  • Change management plan
  • Configuration management plan
  • Scope baseline
  • Schedule baseline
  • Cost baseline

b) Change Requests - Change requests can be updates, changes to deliverable, corrective actions, preventive action, defect repairs, new scope etc.

c)Project Documents - like estimates, traceability matrix. risk report etc.

d)Work performance reports - this include schedule, cost data, earned value reports etc. 

Perform Integrated Change Control Outputs:

The main output of this process is approved change requests. The change requests are approved by CCB or change control board. Below are the outputs listed.

  • Approved Change Requests
  • Project Management Plan Updates
  • Project Document Updates.

This tutorial gives you what examples are inputs to the perform integrated change control process and respective outputs of the process. Also you should be able to relate your change process in your company to standard process.

What is a Project Charter ?

A Project Charter is a document that describes the purpose of a project and its scope, it legally authorizes the beginning of the project.It provides a preliminary delineation of roles and responsibilities, outlines the project objectives, identifies the main stakeholders, and defines the authority of the project manager. It serves as a reference of authority for the future of the project.

A project charter includes:

  • The essence of the project.
  • Provide a shared understanding of the project.
  • Act as a legal agreement between the project sponsor, key stakeholders and the project team to start the project.

The purpose of the project charter is to document:

  • Reasons for undertaking the project
  • Objectives and constraints of the project
  • Directions concerning the solution
  • Identifies the main stakeholders
  • In-scope and out-of-scope items
  • High level Risks identified
  • Target project benefits
  • High level budget and spending authority

Who creates the Project Charter or Who signs the Project Charter?

The project charter is a document that officially starts a project or a phase. It formally authorizes the existence of the project and provides a reference source for the future.It explain the business need that lead to the project being taken up.The project charter is signed by the sponsor.The charter is usually created by the sponsor or the initiator along with the project management team, however the task can be delegated to project manager.

Project Charter vs Contract

Many people do not understand the importance of a Project Charter. They believe that Project Charter does not serve any specific purpose.They do not realize Project Charter and Contract serve different purposes. They believe when contract is available project charter is not needed.

A Project charter recognizes & authorizes the project within an organization and  authorizes the start of the project whereas a Contract is a legally binding agreement between two different organizations (the Buyer and the Seller). A document issued by the Project Sponsor to the Project Manager that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the authority to the Project Manager to use organizational resources for the completing the project.

The Project charter is issued by the Project Sponsor whereas the Contract is negotiated & signed by the the buyer and the seller.Project charter gives the commitment from the Sponsor and other stakeholders to provide support to the project team.

Project Charter vs Statement of Work

We have seen the different between project charter (PC) and contract, lets talk about project charter vs sow.

To reiterate project charter formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the authority to the Project Manager to use organizational resources for the completing the project.This is mainly used for internal project management.

Statement of work is a part of project charter, however in project charter it will be very short and crisp as at the time of initiation of project you may not have the detailed information of scope.The primary function of the SOW is to specify the deliverable or deliverable's that a vendor or internal department is responsible for. It must also specify timelines and define reporting responsibilities.

The SOW begins with the Scope Statement that describes the complete requirement of  project and goes on to provide detailed information on the deliverables.The sow will consist of scope of work, deliverables, due date, task responsibility, acceptance criteria, milestones etc. The SOW will describe the project manager, clients and stakeholders how the work will be tackled.

SOW is a part of panning process group, where as project charter is done in the initiating process group.

Project Charter Elements/What Is Included in the Project Charter?

The project charter includes fundamental information used to authorize and establish the basis for a project. We can say a simple project charter includes the below contents. These are required in a project charter template.

  • Project Title
  • Project Description
  • Business Case
  • Project Manager Assigned and Authority Level
  • Stakeholders
  • Resources Assigned
  • Deliverables
  • High Level Project Risks
  • Signature and Approval

Refer the project charter sample from below..

Project charter template word download or project charter template free download from here Project Charter.

 


Project Integration Management: 

Project integration management is one of the key knowledge area in PMBOK which cuts across all 5 Process groups. The knowledge area talks about 7 processes which coordinate all aspects of a project.

What is Integration ?

Integration is the action or process of combining or consolidating or in-cooperating different things together.

What is project integration management ?

 

Project integration management definition is the processes and activities that are carried out to identify, combine and coordinate the various project management processes with in project management process groups.

Project integration management is one of the 10 project management knowledge areas touches all five phases of a project:

  • Initiating
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Monitoring and controlling
  • Closing

Project integration management is a way of making various processes work together, When properly performed project integration management ensures smoothly run project. That is why the importance of project integration management is high in project management. Project integration management very important knowledge area for project managers, it cannot be delegated or handed over to others. The project manager is ultimate responsible for the success of project.

Project integration management processes :

The project integration management processes are :

  • Develop project charter
  • Develop project management plan
  • Direct and manage project work
  • Manage project knowledge
  • Monitor and control project work
  • Perform integrated change control
  • Close project or phase

Project Integration Management processes

There are 7 project integration management processes and each of these processes contributes to overall project integration management and project success. Let's have a detailed look at each one from project integration management processes list.

1. Develop project charter:

what is project charter in project management ?

A project charter is the document that states a project exists and provides the project manager written authority to begin project work.

A project charter should:

  • Contain the essence of the project.
  • Provide a shared understanding of the project.
  • Act as a contract between the project sponsor, key stakeholders and the project team.

Develop project charter is the process of developing the project charter document that formally authorize the existence of the project and the project manager is given the authority to use organizational resources to project activities. Develop project charter is part of initiating process groups.

Project integration management tools and technique, we will briefly look what are the major inputs (Inputs for project charter) , tools and techniques, outputs for each process.

Inputs: Business case, benefits management plan, agreements, EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, brainstorming, focus groups, interviews, meetings etc.

Outputs: Project charter and assumptions.

By default the output of this processes is project charter document and the assumptions.

Develop Project Charter

2. Develop project management plan:

The project management plan is the consolidated plan of all other management plans, such as the scope management plan, cost management plan, quality management plan, process improvement plan, human resource plan, communication management plan, procurement management plan etc.

Develop project management plan is the process of defining, preparing and consolidation or integration of all plans together in to project management plan. The project management plan is a summary and consolidation of the other management plans that provides a quick overview of the entire project.

lets look at the iito for this process.

Inputs: Project Charter,  EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, brainstorming, focus groups, interviews, meetings,checklists etc.

Outputs: Project Management Plan

Develop Project Management Plan

The project management plan defines how the project is executed , monitored and controlled, closed. Project management plan should be baselined.

3. Direct and manage project work:

Direct and manage project work is the process for directing the defined work as per project management plan and change requests are implemented to achieves project goals. This process manages the deliverables and project work for project success.

Inputs: Project Management plan, Change logs, Risk Register, Approved changes, Project schedule,  EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, Project management information system, meetings.

Outputs: Deliverables, Work Performance Data, Issue log, Change requests, Project management plan updates, Project document updates, OPA updates.

4. Manage project knowledge:

Manage project knowledge is a new process added in PMBOK6 version. Manage project knowledge is a process for managing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the projects objectives. Organization process assets is the storage of knowledge and it is leveraged in this process. The knowledge created by the project is captured and is updated in the organizational process asset.

Inputs: Project Management plan, llbp register ( lessons learnt and best practices), Deliverables, Project documents,  EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, Knowledge management,  Information management,etc

Outputs: lessons learned register, Project management plan updates, OPA updates.

5. Monitor and control project work:

This process is to collect the performance data of the project and benchmark it with targets.

Monitor and control project work is the process of tracking, reviewing and reporting the overall progress of the project and evaluate the current performance of the project and take necessary action to to address the issues. This allows the transparent information to stakeholders on how the project is progressing.

Inputs: Project Management plan, , Project documents, Work performance data, agreements,  EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, Data analysis ( Earned value analysis, Trend analysis,Cost benefit analysis etc) , decision making etc

Outputs: work performance report, change requests, lessons learned register, Project management plan updates, Project document updates.

6. Perform integrated change control:

Perform integrated change control is one of the important process or activity. Perform integrated change control is the process of reviewing all change requests and approving the changes. When approving change request it is required to consider the impact of the project objectives. Also any changes will lead to change in deliverables, update in project documents, project management plan updates, etc. One of the key parameter to be evaluated as part of integrated change control is risk analysis, what are the risks in approving the change to the project deliverables and goals.

Inputs: Project Management plan( Change management plan) , Project documents, Work performance report, Change requests,  EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, Change control tools,Data analysis, decision making, meetings etc

Outputs: Approved change requests, Project management plan updates, Project document updates.

7. Close project or phase:

Close project or phase is the process of final closure of the project activities or contract. The lessons learned from the project is captured and updated. The project can close because of successfull completion and stakeholders agreed for the deliverables , the project can be also closed because it is not giving any benefits to the organization.

Inputs: Project charter, Project Management plan , Project documents, accepted deliverables, agreements and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, Data analysis,  meetings etc

Outputs: Final report, Final product or service, Project document updates ( lessons learned register).

Relate your project and map each activity with above processes as project integration management example.


In my previous post 10 pmp sample questions and answers  I have shared 10 sample project management questions and answers, also refer sample pmp questions and 20 sample pmp questions and answers for more project management quiz questions answers.

In this post I will be sharing few more project management multiple choice questions and answers, try it out and check your knowledge on project management. For the answer of project management sample exam questions and answers scroll down the bottom of this page.

1. Project managers have the highest level of authority and the most power in which type of organizational structure?

a) Projectized
b) Strong Matrix
c) Functional
d) Balanced Matrix

2. What is one of the most important skills a project manager can have?

a) Negotiation skills
b) Influencing skills
c) Communication skills
d) Problem Solving skills

3. Which of the following contracts should you use for projects that have a degree of uncertainty and require a large investment early in the project life cycle?

a) Fixed Price
b) Cost Reimbursable
c) lump Sum
d) Unit Price

4. A Project manager would find team development the most difficult in which form of organization ?

a) Weak Matrix Organization
b) Balanced Matrix Organization
c) Projectized Organization
d) Tight Matrix Organization

5. A narrative description of products or services to be supplied under contract is called ?

a) The project plan
b) A statement of work
c) An exception report
d) Pareto analysis

6. All of the following are contract types except:

a) Unit Price
b) Make or Buy
c) Cost Reimbursable
d) lump Sum

7. Which type of leadership is best suited for optimizing team performance in projects?

a) Democratic leadership
b) Participative leadership
c) Autocratic leadership
d) Authoritative leadership

8. What are the 4 stages of team development?

a) Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing
b) Enthusiasm, Hope, Panic, Solution
c) Forming, Solutioning, Normalizing, Communicating
d) Direction, Motivation, Cooperation, Collaboration

9. Your IT Company is responsible for making software virus programs. You are responsible for managing both individual product releases and co-ordination of multiple released over time. Your role is that of a :

a) Project Manager
b) Program Manager
c) Functional Manager
d) Operations Manager

10. Which of the following is not a feature of a project?

a) Constrained by limited resources
b) Planned , executed and controlled
c) Creates unique product or service
d) May be ongoing and repetitive

Answers for above project management questions and answers with multiple choices are listed below:

  1. a) Projectized
  2. c) Communication skills
  3. b) Cost Reimbursable
  4. a) Weak Matrix Organization
  5. b) A statement of work
  6. b) Make or Buy
  7. b) Participative leadership
  8. a) Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing
  9. b) Program Manager
  10. d) May be ongoing and repetitive

Most of the questions are related organization, Project manager skills, contracts and team development.

Hope this is helpful and  we will see more with project management quiz questions answers in coming posts.