The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

In simple terms we can say IoT is a system of things integrated with sensors, softwares, electronics which are connected to each other & can exchange data or Information with other connected devices.

What is a Gateway?

A gateway is a piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications for telecommunications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another. Gateways are distinct from routers or switches in that they communicate using more than one protocol and can operate at any of the seven layers of the open systems interconnection model (OSI).The term gateway can also loosely refer to a computer or computer program configured to perform the tasks of a gateway, such as a default gateway or router.

What is a IoT Gateway?

As IoT grows and billions of connected devices enter the world, one of the most critical components of future internet of things systems may be a device known as an IoT gateway. The importance of IoT gateways is understandable .

An Internet of Things (IoT) gateway is an integral part of an IoT ecosystem, handling communication with local sensors and remote users among a suite of other functions.

What is IoT edge gateway ? An Internet of things gateway provides the bridge between IoT devices in the field, the cloud, and user equipment such as smartphones. The IoT gateway provides a communication link between the field and the cloud and can provide offline services and real-time control over the devices in the field. Simple IoT gateway definition we can say IoT gateway aggregates sensor data, translates between sensor protocols, processes sensor data before sending it.

The interconnected devices communicate by using lightweight IoT gateway protocols like bus-based (DDS, REST, XMPP) and broker based (AMPQ, CoAP, MQTT, JMI) that don't require extensive CPU resources.To handle any needed protocol conversion, database storage or decision making, IoT nodes use separate IoT gateways in order to supplement the low-intelligence of devices.

The sensors generate huge amount of data per second and IoT gateway hardware provides a place to preprocess that data locally before sending it on to the cloud. When data is collected and analyzed at the edge, it minimizes the amount of data that needs to be forwarded on to the cloud and this is the use of iot gateway or we can say IoT gateway functionality.

IoT Gateway Architecture:

If you are thinking why you need an IoT Gateway, With IoT solutions, we have to deal with tons of devices working in the field and because the nature of these devices is very different like web, desktop, smart phones etc we need an intermediate architectural element that will act as a proxy between the world of field devices and the enterprise data center. That's why What we need is an IoT gateway.

The IoT gateway software or IoT gateway hardware is not just a dump proxy that forwards data from sensors to backend services. Sending all the information collected by sensors to the cloud or storage data center would be highly ineffective in terms of performance and network utilization. The IoT gateway will perform the pre-processing of information in the field, before they’re sent to the data center and it is the main function of the iot gateway.

An IoT ecosystem is made up of many components, or layers. The bottom layer contains the sensors and devices. The gateway acts as a secure intermediary between these sensors, devices and the cloud. The top layer handles overall monitoring and management of the IoT ecosystem, with analytics of the collected and persisted data, including applications.

IoT gateway architecture

IoT gateways consist of a hardware platform and an operating system and expose a rich set of services for your IoT application. The gateway software installed on the device is responsible for collecting data from the sensor, pre-processing that data, and sending the results to the data center.

IoT gateway architecture

A large number of manufacturers are involved in the IoT gateways design and production and some of iot gateway providers or iot gateway hardware manufacturers include CISCO, Harman International Industries, Advantech, ADLINK, Supermicro, Intel (intel iot gateway) , and NXP.

Are there any opensource IoT gateway or free iot gateway available ? Thingsboard is a iot gateway open source. The ThingsBoard IoT Gateway is an open-source solution that allows you to integrate IoT devices connected to legacy and third-party systems with ThingsBoard. ThingsBoard is an open-source IoT platform that enables rapid development, management and scaling of IoT applications. Refer the link for more details.

Refer the link for iot gateway wiki.


In this article we will talk about what is traditional project management ?, what is agile project management? and difference between traditional and agile project management.

What is a project?

project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to achieve unique product or services.

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools & technique to the project activities to meet the project requirement. Project management enables the organization to execute the projects effectively & efficiently.

Project Management Process Groups:

A classic project management Processes are grouped together in to five process groups. to differentiate between traditional and modern project management we should know about the project management process first. The Logical grouping of project management processes to achieve specific project objectives are called Project Management Process Groups. Below are the five process groups and basic principles of traditional project management.

  1. Initiating Process group: The processes part of initiating process group are performed at the time of new project or new phase of existing project.
  2. Planning Process group: The processes part of planning process groups helps in defining the plan for the project like defining scope, planning for schedule, cost, procurement, communications etc.  This helps in defining the course for the project to achieve its objectives.
  3. Executing Process group: The processes in executing process group is performed to complete the defined work as per plan to satisfy the project stakeholders.
  4. Monitoring & Controlling Process group: As part of monitoring & controlling process group, the performance of project is tracked, monitored, reviewed & controlled. The variation from plan is derived & identify what changes are required to bring back the project on track.
  5. Closing Process group: The processes part of closing process group are done at the time of closing the project to close the project formally.

Traditional project management:

Traditional project management or Waterfall project management is mainly used on projects where activities are completed in a sequence and there are rarely any changes.

The concept of traditional project management is based on predictable experience and predictable tools. Each project follows the same lifecycle, which includes five stages: initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing.The ultimate goal of waterfall project management was to make sure all the tasks are carried out in a predetermined orderly sequence.

The waterfall approach is linear where all the phases of a process occur in sequence. It depends on predictable tools and predictable experience. Every project follows the same life cycle which includes the stages.

Gantt chart is the most important technique in traditional project management. Gantt chart gives you a simple overview of a project. It is one of the most useful ways of presenting tasks and activities of the project on a timeline.

Agile project management and agile software development have become hot topics in recent years, however Agile might be the best approach for some projects, other projects still require the rigor of a more traditional approach.

The entire project is planned upfront and any scope for changing requirements is not appreciated. Acceptance of changes is one of the major difference factor in traditional project management vs agile. We can also say agile as modern project management , let see how differ traditional project management vs modern project management .

 

Traditional Project Management

What is Agile?

In simple terms agile meaning is able to move quickly and easily.

Agile software development is an approach to software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing and cross-functional teams and their customer(s)/end user(s).[1] It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, empirical knowledge, and continual improvement, and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change.

Scrum is a type of agile methodology. It is essentially an agile process framework.Scrum follows a set of fixed length iterations in which the product is developed. Each of these iterations are called as Sprint. Typically, each sprint is fixed somewhere within  1 week to 4 week.

Agile Project Management:

Agile project management is an approach based on delivering requirements iteratively and incrementally throughout the project life cycle.Agile approach shifts more quickly to execution and spends less time on planning.The basic concept behind Agile software development is that it delves into evolving changes and collaborative effort to bring out results rather than a predefined process.Scrum and Kanban are two of the most widely used Agile frameworks.Agile approaches empower those involved, and agile philosophy concentrates on empowered people and their interactions and early and constant delivery of value into an enterprise and this is one of the main difference between agile and waterfall project.

Why Agile ?

Some of the key benefit from project management Agile Methodology is below.

  • Adaptability
  • Time-to-market
  • Reduced costs
  • Customer satisfaction

Agile vs Waterfall project management

 

Agile vs Waterfall:

It is not always not necessary to use agile approach. A blended approach can bring synergy utilizing best of both Agile and Waterfall.

Key difference between agile vs traditional project management are

  • Waterfall is used when project is relatively familiar where as agile is used when project is relatively unfamiliar.
  • TPM or Traditional Project management is used when project have defined clear scope and deliverables where are Agile is used when there are  evolving changes in scope.
  • TPM is more of negotiation with customer where are Agile is a collaboration with customer.

As part of this tutorial we have covered agile project management vs project management . We will talk more about scrum and Kanban in coming tutorials.

Project Management:

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools & technique to the project activities to meet the project requirement. Project management enables the organization to execute the projects effectively & efficiently.

PMBoK has released 6th edition in 2018 and all project management enthusiast are looking for pmp 6th edition questions and answers to clear pmp exam.

You can refer the links project management questions and answers and project manager scenario based interview questions and answers for some of the sample pmp exam questions 6th edition.

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to produce a unique product or service

The characteristics of projects are

  • Specific start and end date
  • Has a defined objective
  • Series of tasks to achieve a defined outcome or objective

Projects are undertaken to full-fill objectives by producing deliverables. The deliverables may be tangible or intangible.

In this article I have tried to cover pmp practice exam with answers and hope this is useful for Project Managers and those who are pursuing PMP certification.  There are other pmp simulation exam free and other free practice tests for pmp online available however here I have given you 20 sample pmp exam questions and answers to test your knowledge.

1.Which is the BEST definition of quality?
A. A product made of very expensive materials and cost more.
B. A product made with a lot of care by the team who built it
C. A product that satisfies the requirements of the people who pay for it
D. A product that passes all of its tests and no bugs found.

Answer : C

2. Which of the following is NOT an input to Perform Quality Control?
A. Deliverables
B. Work Performance Measurements
C. Quality Checklists
D. Validated Changes

Answer : D

3. You are the project manager for a railroad construction project. Your sponsor has asked you for a forecast
for the cost of project completion. The project has a total budget of $80,000 and CPI of .95. The project has spent
$25,000 of its budget so far. How much more money do you plan to spend on the project?
A. $59,210
B. $80,000
C. $84,210
D. $109,210

Answer : A

4. You are managing a software project. During a walkthrough of newly implemented
functionality, your team shows you a new feature that they have added to help make the
workflow in the product easier for your client. The client didn’t ask for the feature, but it
does look like it will make the product easier to use. The team developed it on their own time
because they wanted to make the client happy. You know this change would never have made
it through change control. What is this an example of?
A. Gold plating
B. Scope creep
C. Alternatives Analysis
D. Schedule Variance

Answer : A

5. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Project Management Plan?
A. Collection of subsidiary plans
B. Formal, written communication
C. A bar chart that shows the order of tasks and their resource assignments
D. Must be approved by project sponsor

Answer : C

6. When is the BEST time to have project kickoff meetings?
A. At the beginning of the project
B. When each deliverable is created
C. At the start of each phase
D. When the Communications Management plan is approved

Answer : C

7. The terms of union contracts are considered ______________ in your project plan.
A. Assumptions
B. Constraints
C. Requirements
D. Collective bargaining agreements

Answer : B

8. A Project Manager is at the project kick-off meeting. He confidently states the vision and mission for the
project. This PM is exhibiting the following leadership style:
A. Hierarchal
B. Authoritarian
C. Charismatic
D. Associative

Answer : C

9. Which of the following models of conflict resolution allows a cooling off period, but seldom resolves the
issue in the long term?
A. Problem solving
B. Withdrawal
C. Forcing
D. Smoothing

Answer : B

10. Group brainstorming encourages all of the following except:
A. Team building
B. Analysis of alternatives
C. Convergent thinking
D. Uninhibited verbalization

Answer : C

11. Crashing, and Fast tracking are techniques used in the following process:
A. Schedule Development
B. Activity Definition
C. Create WBS
D. Resource Allocation

Answer : A

12. A project manager is assigned a project with a team that has already been selected. The first thing the
project manager should find out about the team is?
A. What is each team member's favorite color
B. Each team member's objectives for working on the project
C. A list of each team member's tasks
D. Each team member's role in the project plan

Answer : D

13. Which of the following is not correct:
A. PMO - Program Management Office
B. RBS - Resource Breakdown Structure
C. RAM - Resource Assignment Matrix
D. RFP - Request for Proposal
E. TQM - Total Quality Management

Answer : C

14. Which of the following Human Resource process generates Roles & Responsibilities :
A. Human Resource Planning
B. Acquire Project Team
C. Develop Project Team
D. Manage Project Team

Answer : A

15. What is the Delphi technique?
A. A simulation technique.
B. A mathematical analysis.
C. A constrained optimization method.
D. A consensuas technique.

Answer : A

16. You have negotiated a major deliverable with a contractor several of your colleagues
have utilized in the past without problems. Its is critical the contactor meet the December 4th
deliverable.this is an example of :
A. Objective
B. Goal
C. Constraint.
D. Assumption.

Answer : D

17. As the project manager you will be required to report periodically to upper
management on the progress of the project. What item below will you require to report
your progress as the basis for the budget ,schedule ,resource allocation and scope
definition.
A. Precedence diagramming method.
B. project character.
C. Work breakdown schedule.
D. Project management plan.

Answer : C

18. Out puts from the initiation process includes:
A. project manager assigned ,project character, and product description.
B. constraints, assumptions, and product description.
C. Project character ,Constraints, and assumptions.
D.scope statement, project manager identified, and product description.

Answer : C

19. In which motivation theory do hygiene factors play a part?
A. Herzberg's
B. McGregor's
C. Theory Y
D. Maslow's hierarchy

Answer : A

20. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, self-actualization means self-fulfillment, growth and:
A. affection.
B. learning.
C. security.
D. stability.

Answer : B

Evaluate yourself with the above free pmp exam questions 6th edition, how much you have scored for project manager interview questions and answers will give you the idea to benchmark yourself and progress your learning in PMP. Looking for more pmp practice exam 2018, et me know through comments I will share more questionnaire.

 

What Is IoT?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

We are going to see IoT in everything. As per Gartner By 2020, IoT technology will be in 95% of electronics for new product designs.With the technology evolution surrounding the IoT, it will become increasingly possible to add IoT features to a product at minimal cost. As IoT is going be a major player in market and most of people and enterprise are also worried about security challenges of the internet of things. There are multiple threats and challenges of iot and how to face the iot challenges and solutions are identified.While security challenges in iot need to be sorted,due to challenges in determining security risks and exposure for IoT, current budgets for security spend is minimal.Most organizations already face information risks from Internet of Things (IoT) devices. In fact, almost 20% of organizations have detected an IoT-based attack in the past three years.

IoT Risks And Challenges:

We will list down the top iot security challenges in this tutorial.As all know security is one of the major problems with iot and key IoT adoption barriers for the enterprises.

Source:Pixabay

Security and Privacy:

Security is an essential pillar of the Internet and one that to be equally essential and the most significant challenge for the IoT. As Increase the number of connected devices increases the opportunity to exploit security vulnerabilities, as poorly designed IoT devices can expose user data to theft by leaving data streams inadequately protected.A latest research claims that by 2020, 25% of cyber attacks will target IoT devices.

Major security issues in iot have been raised that the IoT is being developed rapidly without appropriate consideration of the profound security challenges involved.Most of the technical security concerns are similar to those of conventional servers, workstations and smartphones. Security is the biggest concern in adopting Internet of things technology. As the Internet of things spreads widely, cyber attacks are likely to become an increasingly physical threat.The vulnerabilities include weak authentication (IoT devices are being used with default credentials), unencrypted messages sent between devices, lack of verification or encryption of software updates.

In a January 2014 article in Forbes, cyber-security columnist Joseph Steinberg listed many Internet-connected appliances that can already “spy on people in their own homes” including televisions, kitchen appliances,[185] cameras etc.Welcome to the era of the Internet of Things (IoT), where digitally connected devices are encroaching on every aspect of our lives, including our homes, offices, cars and even our bodies. To deal with all these unique challenges, there is a need for strict approach to security. A lot of users are ultimately going to compare the cost against the security.

IoT creates unique challenges to privacy, many that go beyond the data privacy issues, consumer devices such as tracking devices for phones and cars as well as smart televisions are capable of tracking your day today activities .The Internet of things’ potential for major privacy invasion is a concern.Consumers take a more active interest in protecting their privacy and demand IoT devices to be screened for potential security vulnerabilities and privacy violations before purchasing them.Consumers are increasingly worried about privacy risks and security concerns that outweigh the value propositions of IoT devices and they opt to postpone their planned purchases or service subscriptions of IoT devices or soutions. As Security and Privacy are major issues in IoT, Enterprises when developing their IoT systems really need to work on IoT security issues and solutions.

Regulations and Standards:

One of the key drivers of the IoT is data. The success of the idea of connecting devices to make them more efficient is dependent upon access to and storage & processing of data. Companies working on the IoT collect data from multiple sources and store it for further processing.Lack of proper Reguation and standards will open up the possibility for for privacy and security dangers. IoT regulation depends on the country. Several standards for the IoT industry are actually being established relating to automobiles because most concerns arising from use of connected cars apply to healthcare devices as well. Lack of standards and documented best practices have a greater impact than just limiting the potential of IoT devices.These are because of still early days for IoT in government and unclear business models, despite strong value proposition.Without the right standards to guide and regulate manufacturers the developers may design products that operate in disruptive ways and If they are configured or designed poorly, these devices may have huge consequences on resources they connect.

Existing and upcoming privacy laws, including the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), will dramatically impact an organization’s strategy, purpose and methods for processing personal data in IoT.

Lack of Interoperability:

Another one of the main internet of things challenges is IoT devices lacking interoperability.With numerous vendors, OEMs, and service providers in IoT business, it has become really difficult to maintain interoperability between different IoT systems.Sensors and connectivity are the integral components of IoT. But not every IoT soutions are equipped with advanced sensors and networking capabilities to effectively communicate and share data between different builds and manafucturers. It will be really challenging to identify a easy solution for this. However from end user perspective this is a really needed capability in a IoT devices.

In short as part of this artice we have seen the iot security problems and iot challenges in the real world.


In the tutorial Wireless Remote Control Lighting System | Smart Lighting Control Systems I have done the control of AC light using Raspberry Pi and Cayenne App. I got a request from my friend to control the Water Pumping motor at a specific interval. Currently they have to switch on and off the motor manually. So we will be working on AC motor and Raspberry pi which will act as automatic watering system. We are not making any plant watering system here.

You could have seen other articles on controlling DC Motors Using Python With a Raspberry Pi, however here we are using the Raspberry Pi to control AC electric power . The connections are almost similar to the light control system, you need to replace the light with motor and we will be using Python script.

Components Needed:

  1. Raspberry Pi
  2. 5V Relay Module
  3. AC Motor/Water Pump
  4. Connecting wires
  5. Power supply for Pi

SINCE 120/230V AC IS DANGEROUS, DO NOT TOUCH WIRES FROM OUTLET WHILE IT IS POWERED ON! AND ALSO RECOMMEND YOU TO CHECK WITH ELECTRICIAN FOR WIRING. YOUR SAFETY IS MORE IMPORTANT.

Automatic Water Pump Using Raspberry Pi:

For making automate motor control with raspberry pi, first connect the VCC of the Relay to GPIO Pin 2 and Relay GND to GPIO 39 which is GND in Pi. Connect the Raspberry Pi GPIO Pin 19 to Relay IN pin which will control the NO and NC connection of Relay . Connect the AC line 120/230V AC from Plug point to COM of Relay and other wire from NO or NC on relay to the Motor. The neutral from pug point will go directly to Motor.

Raspberry Pi Motor Control

Python Script For Raspberry Pi 3 Automatic Watering System:

The raspberry pi ac motor control will run based on interval we define in the script. What we are doing here is to capture the last run time of the motor in to a notepad and check that with current time. If the motor last run was  1 hour before the motor will start pumping the water for 15 min and will stop.

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import os
import sys
import datetime
import time
from time import sleep
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
GPIO.setup(17, GPIO.OUT)
runhour = (time.strftime("%H%M%S"))
add = 4000
file1 = open("/home/pi/Motor_Running_Project.txt","r",encoding = 'utf-8')
f = file1.read(6)
print(f)
file1.close()
intrunhour = int (f)
while True:

now = int(time.strftime("%H%M%S"))
print(now)
x = now - intrunhour
print(x)

       if x>=0:

         GPIO.output(17,GPIO.HIGH)
         print("program started")
         time.sleep(900)
         intrunhour = now + add
         nextrun = str (intrunhour)
         file1 = open("/home/pi/Motor_Running_Project.txt","w")
         file1.write(nextrun)
         file1.close()
         print(nextrun)
         GPIO.output(17,GPIO.LOW)

       else:
                print("program not started")

GPIO.output(17,GPIO.LOW)
GPIO.cleanup()

The Python program is also attached Motor Control With Raspberry Pi_Project.py.

For DC Motor Control With Raspberry Pi I will update in new tutorial.

What Is Digital Transformation?

Digital business transformation is the process of exploiting digital technologies and supporting capabilities to create a robust new digital business model. Digital Transformation is not necessarily about digital technology, but about the fact that technology, which is digital, allows people to solve their traditional problems. And they prefer this digital solution to the old solution. Digital transformation helps the organization through integration of digital technology into all areas of a business, fundamentally changing how you operate and deliver value to customers. It is also a cultural change.

Gartner predicts that by 2020, more than 30 billion devices will be connected to the Internet. The advent of digital business expands and evolves as the opportunities, threats and constraints of leveraging a business ecosystem. A digital business ecosystem is a marketplace of functions and information. It is a network construct whereby multiple value forms are exchanged for the benefit of all participants.

Digital transformation will look different for every company. Why digital transformation matters? There are a several reasons for a business may undergo digital transformation, but the most likely reason is also that they have to fight for survival and make their business future proof. Technology has driven this shift, and companies that want to succeed must understand how to merge technology with strategy. In this tutorial we will see what are the main top digital transformation trends which in turns gives you the details of  best technology to learn to keep stay ahead in technology.

Source: Pixabay

Digital Transformation Trends 2019:

The future is going to be exiting and unpredictable. Currently most of the big companies are putting lot of efforts and research on new technologies. The Top 5 future technology predictions 2020 are :

Autonomous Things or Intelligent Things:

Most of the organizations are gathering information to build their AI strategies, The use of AI to enhance decision making, reinvent business models and ecosystems and increase the customer experience will payoff for their digital initiatives. Generally AI systems magically perform any intellectual task that a human can do and dynamically learn much as humans do at best. AI consisting of highly scoped machine-learning solutions that target a specific task that can be optimized.

Autonomous things abbreviated AuT, or the Internet of autonomous things abbreviated as IoAT, is an emerging term for the technological developments that are expected to bring computers into the physical environment as autonomous entities without human direction, freely moving and interacting with humans and other objects.Autonomous things such as robots drones and autonomous vehicles uses Artificial intelligence to automate functions previously performed by humans. As an eg: the autonomous car addresses the main existing safety issues and creates new issues. It is expected to be much safer than existing vehicles, by eliminating the single most dangerous element which is the driver. Intelligent things can respond to real world conditions automatically.Intelligent things use AI and machine learning to interact in a more intelligent way with people and surroundings.

Some other examples are Intel’s use of a drone swarm for the opening ceremony of the Winter Olympic Games in 2018 and a plan for Dubai to use autonomous police vehicles that can deploy their own drones for surveillance.

Digital Twins:

According to Gartner, a digital twin refers to the digital representation of a real-world entity or system.DTO (Digital Twins of Organizations) is a dynamic software model that relies on operational or other data to understand how an organization operationalizes its business model, connects with its current state, deploys resources and responds to changes to deliver expected customer value. Digital twin refers to a digital replica of physical assets (physical twin), processes, people, places, systems and devices that can be used for various purposes.

Below are few definitions of digital twins, Refer the WiKi link and Gartner link.

Definitions of digital twins used in existing literature
Definition Authors
“A Digital Twin is an integrated multiphysics, multiscale, probabilistic simulation of an as-built vehicle or system that uses the best available physical models, sensor updates, fleet history, etc., to mirror the life of its corresponding flying twin” Glaessgen & Stargel, (2012)
“Coupled model of the real machine that operates in the cloud platform and simulates the health condition with an integrated knowledge from both data driven analytical algorithms as well as other available physical knowledge” Lee, Lapira, Bagheri, an Kao, (2013)
“digital twin is a real mapping of all components in the product life cycle using physical data, virtual data and interaction data between them” Tao, Sui, Liu, Qi, Zhang, Song, Guo, Lu & Nee, (2018)
“a dynamic virtual representation of a physical object or system across its lifecycle, using real-time data to enable understanding, learning and reasoning” Bolton, McColl-Kennedy, Cheung, Gallen, Orsingher, Witell & Zaki, (2018)
“Using a digital copy of the physical system to perform real-time optimization” Söderberg, R., Wärmefjord, K., Carlson, J. S., & Lindkvist, L. (2017)
“A digital twin is a real time digital replica of a physical device” Bacchiega (2017)

 

Digital twins integrate artificial intelligence, machine learning and software analytics  to create living digital simulation models that update and change as their physical counterparts change. A digital twin continuously learns and updates itself from multiple sources to represent its near real-time status, working condition or position.

Blockchain:

What is blockchain : Blockchain  is  an encrypted, distributed computer filing system , it is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography. Block chain certainly is real however may not be completely ready in 2018 for adoption in every industry. Blockchain is going to be technology that will make a real impact across industry sectors along with IoT. Blockchain is the invention from brain of a single person or a group of person know by pseudonym, Satoshi Nakamoto. Digital currency , Bitcoin is first majority used purpose however now industry is finding the potential use of it as technology. Blockchain is getting used in Cybersecurity, healthcare, financial sectors etc. for securing health records, control disease, patient data, cryptocurrency wallets.

Blockchain technology holds the promise to change industries, and although mosty we see often around financial opportunities. Blockchain has many potential applications in government, healthcare, content distribution, supply chain and more. However, many blockchain technologies are immature and unproven, and are largely unregulated.

How bitcoin works?

Bitcoin, probably the most well-known example of blockchain, records cryptocurrency transactions in a chain-of-blocks data structure where a block is a group of transaction records added every few minutes in a never-ending series. The ledger records the sequence of each transaction and every “coin” (virtual currency stored as information bits).

Immersive Experience:

Immersion into virtual reality is a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world. The perception is created by surrounding the user of the VR system in images, sound or other stimuli that provide an engrossing total environment.An immersive experience is an illusory environment that completely surrounds you such that you feel that you are inside it and part of it. Augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality are changing the way that people perceive and interact with the digital world.Whether we are playing a video game on our smartphone, video conferencing on our tablet, or watching sports on our Virtual Reality (VR) headset Immersion enhances everyday experiences, making them more realistic, engaging, and satisfying on all our devices.

Over the next years the focus will be on mixed reality, which is emerging as the immersive experience of choice, where the user interacts with digital and real-world objects while maintaining a presence in the physical world.

Augmented Analytics:

Augmented analytics focuses on a specific area of augmented intelligence, using machine learning (ML) to transform how analytics content is developed, consumed and shared. Augmented analytics is the future of data and analytics. As per Gartner Augmented analytics automates the process of data preparation, insight generation and insight visualization, eliminating the need for professional data scientists in many situations.


In this tutorial we will go through on how to turn on or off a AC lamp, or any other AC electrical device with a Raspberry Pi, Cayenne and a relay module.

SINCE 120/230V AC IS DANGEROUS, DO NOT TOUCH WIRES FROM OUTLET WHILE IT IS POWERED ON! AND ALSO RECOMMEND YOU TO CHECK WITH ELECTRICIAN FOR WIRING. YOUR SAFETY IS MORE IMPORTANT.

Everyone wants to have use best home automation systems in their home , which is really expensive at times, Can I build my own home automation system to control your AC devices like lamp, Fan? . Yes we can, In this project we will work on simple way on how to control AC 230V lights. We can do this using Raspberry Pi and Arduino which are the two devices I have spoke in my previous IoT devices article. Controlling AC Light Using Arduino With Relay Module is one way, however we will be using Raspberry pi and Cayenne for building remote control wireless lights in your home.

Components Needed:

  1. Raspberry Pi
  2. 5V Relay Module
  3. AC Bulb
  4. Connecting wires
  5. Power supply for Pi
  6. Smartphone or Tablet for Cayenne.

Refer the article to understand the basics of Relay module and connections.

Controlling AC Light Using Raspberry Pi With Relay Module and Cayenne:

For making automated lighting system for home and controlling AC Devices with Raspberry Pi, first connect the VCC of the Relay to GPIO Pin 2 and Relay GND to GPIO 39 which is GND in Pi. Connect the Raspberry Pi GPIO Pin 19 to Relay IN pin which will control the NO and NC connection of Relay . Connect the AC line 120/230V AC from Plug point to COM of Relay and other wire from NO or NC on relay to the bulb. The neutral from pug point will go directly to bulb.

 

Connecting a light bulb with a Raspberry Pi

Make sure Cayenne is connected to your Raspberry Pi and create a LED or Toggle switch to control the Relay connection.

Once you login in cayenne , you will be able to see the dashboard page which gives the details of your raspberry pi. The dashboard gives you on the left the connected Raspberry Pi devices, if you have more than one devices connected it show all of them. If the device is online the color will be Red , if not it will be grey. Once you select your Raspberry Pi which is online, on the top right you will see the details of your device.

Now we have to add the device LED and it should be connected to the GPIO PIN 19. Kindly check the link for GPIO pin details.

Click on Add New -> Device/Widgets which will take it to the screen to select the device.

Add Widgets

Select Actuators -> Click on Generic -> Digital Output.

Digital Output Widget

Once you click on Digital Output, we will get the options to configure the widget.

Select the Device --> Raspberry Pi

Connectivity -> Integrated GPIO

Channel -> Channel 17

Choose Widget -> Button

Choose Icon -> LED

And click on Add Actuator

The Widget is added to the home dashboard now & we are done. You can click on the Widget and the AC bulb i will Turn On and you can click again the bulb will Turn OFF. We can control any AC LED Lamp Controlled Through a Relay and Cayenne now through your mobile or smartphone.


As part of project integration management knowledge area and processes tutorial we have see that the process have 7 processes as listed below and Perform integrated change control is one of the processes.

  • Develop project charter
  • Develop project management plan
  • Direct and manage project work
  • Manage project knowledge
  • Monitor and control project work
  • Perform integrated change control
  • Close project or phase


In this tutorial we will look deeper in to integrated change management, the importance of integrated change control and what are the main objectives of integrated change control?. Before we start lets understand what is change management.

What is Change Management?

What is a change ? A change is an act or process through which something becomes different, in IT terminology any change in infrastructure, software, processes, etc . Change is inevitable and companies, projects, programs undergo changes.

Change management is the system approach in dealing the changes using the tools and techniques for efficient and prompt handing of change requests in the IT infrastructure. This is the minimize the impact of the change on organizational goals, deliverable, service.Change management can ensure standardized methods, processes and procedures which are used for all changes, facilitate efficient and prompt handling of all changes, and maintain the proper balance between the need for change and the potential detrimental impact of changes.

Change Management

What is Integrated Change Management?

Integrated Change Management is to achieve the desired target state by integration of the organizational and individual change processes. What is integrated change control? Perform Integrated Change Control is the processes in Project integration knowledge area and it is the is the process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes and managing changes to deliverable s, organizational process assets, project documents,  project management plan and communicating the decisions to stakeholders. Project change management process reviews all change requests , evaluate the risks associated and determines the resolution of the change request.

Perform integrated change management is conducted from start of the project and Project Manager is complete responsible for it. Change requests can impact the scope, project management plan, project documents etc. Changes are required to formally controlled after the baselines are defined.

Change Control vs Change Management?

We cannot differentiate much on change management and change control. We could say Change Control is a subset of the Change Management process. As per ITIL Change Management aims to control the lifecycle of all Changes. Refer the below figure for understanding process overview of ITIL Change Management .

Change Control Board Process Flow

Change control is an important and it effectively emphasize assessing the business impact and ramifications of a change and the communication and coordination activities involved in evaluating, approving and implementing a change.Change control is all about critically evaluating each suggested change to ensure that it is the right thing to do.

Any proposed change must be approved in the change management process. While change management makes the process happen, the decision authority is the Change Advisory Board (CAB), which generally is composed of people from other functions within the organization. The main activities of the change management are:

  • Create Change Requests
  • Managing changes and the change process
  • Approval from CAB and the CAB/Emergency committee
  • Reviewing and closing of Requests for Change (RFCs) post implementation.
  • Reporting and communicating information to stakeholders.

Perform Integrated Change Control Inputs:

Change requests and Project management plan is one of the major inputs for this process. Below are the inputs listed.


a)Project Management Plan. The sub documents in PP are

  • Change management plan
  • Configuration management plan
  • Scope baseline
  • Schedule baseline
  • Cost baseline

b) Change Requests - Change requests can be updates, changes to deliverable, corrective actions, preventive action, defect repairs, new scope etc.

c)Project Documents - like estimates, traceability matrix. risk report etc.

d)Work performance reports - this include schedule, cost data, earned value reports etc. 

Perform Integrated Change Control Outputs:

The main output of this process is approved change requests. The change requests are approved by CCB or change control board. Below are the outputs listed.

  • Approved Change Requests
  • Project Management Plan Updates
  • Project Document Updates.

This tutorial gives you what examples are inputs to the perform integrated change control process and respective outputs of the process. Also you should be able to relate your change process in your company to standard process.


We have seen few IoT projects in my previous tutorials like Lighting LED with Raspberry PiHome Security email alert using Raspberry PiSecurity System Using Raspberry Pi With Motion Detection Camera in which we have not yet used any AC devices. We have controlled DC devices in the home automation projects. I would like to share home automation's for AC devices in my coming tutorials, however before that I would like to introduce you to the device 5 Volt Relay Module which is an necessary part to control AC device as Raspberry Pi  cannot control high voltage . In this section we will understand how to control Relay switch via GPIO, which is the first step of interface a Relay with Raspberry Pi and see how to setup a 5V Relay with the Raspberry Pi.

What is a Relay?

A relay is an electrically operated switch.Relays control one electrical circuit by opening and closing contacts in another circuit.Many relays use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays.Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal where the output is a high voltage, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.In our IoT home automation projects using Raspberry Pi it can control ow voltage devices of 3.3 V, however when we speak about 220 V of AC Raspberry Pi cannot handle it. So we uses a Relay switch which have Normally Open (NO) and Normally Closed (NC) Pins which is controlled by low voltage. Refer the below diagram to understand Raspberry Pi Relay Control.

1) Normally Open (NO) : The circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive.

2) Normally Closed (NC) : The circuit is connected when the relay is inactive.

Relay

The relay switch is utilized by means of a low-voltage to control the AC connected in NO or NC pins. Since the Pi only tolerates a maximum of 5V and the GPIOs only 3.3V without relays the Pi could burn out if you use direct connections to GPIO pins. We will not controlling ac with raspberry pi in this relay raspberry pi tutorial tutorial however we will be controlling led with relay and raspberry pi.

How to use a relay with a Raspberry Pi:

This will be the base for your home automation using relay and raspberry pi, as part of home automation's you may want to control an electrical load like a light bulb or a ceiling fan or a water pump etc. Once you know the control of Relay we will implement the same in the upcoming projects.

The components needed:

  1. Raspberry Pi
  2. 5V Relay Module
  3. LED
  4. Connecting wires
  5. Power supply for Pi
  6. Bread Board
  7. Resistor -220 ohm

Connection:

The connections is pretty simple refer the below simple Relay circuit. Connect the VCC of the Relay to GPIO Pin 2 and Relay GND to GPIO 39 which is GND in Pi. Connect the Raspberry Pi GPIO Pin 19 to Relay IN pin which will control the NO and NC connection of Relay .

Connect the 5 V from GPIO Pin 2 to the Normally Open connector in Relay and connect the Common port in Relay to the LED Anode. Connect the 220 Ohm resistor from cathode and other end of the resistor to the GND.



Lets write a simple script to bring the GPIO PIN 19 to high and low so that Relay will get activated when the voltage is high.

Raspberry pi relay python script:

import time

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO

GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
GPIO.setup(19, GPIO.OUT)
GPIO.output(19, GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(1)
GPIO.output(19, GPIO.LOW)

time.sleep(1)

GPIO.output(19, GPIO.HIGH)

time.sleep(1)
GPIO.cleanup()


I have used Raspberry Pi for most of my IoT projects. Both arduino and raspberry pi is used for Home automations and IoT projects, I got of lot of queries on why not using Arduino boards. In this post I would like to cover difference between Arduino and Raspberry Pi, what differentiate between Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

Arduino and Raspberry Pi are the most popular IoT devices among the students, professionals and IoT project DIY peoples.Are you confused between them, like which board is easy to learn or which board to use for what projects or why should they use Arduino over Raspberry Pi? when to use Arduino vs Raspberry Pi?.In this article we will discusses all the features that can make you easy to choose the decision over Arduino and Raspberry Pi, Arduino vs Raspberry Pi which is better for your projects.

What is Arduino?

An Arduino is a simple micro-controller board which is capable of running a simple program to accomplish a desired function. Arduino runs on "bare metal". That it runs its software without an operating system.The Arduino boards are micro-controllers, not a full-fledged computer. simply write the code and execute as their firmware interprets it.

Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino boards are able to read inputs - light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message - and turn it into an output - activating a motor, turning on an LED, publishing something online. You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller on the board.

Arduino Uno

Arduino was born at the Ivrea Interaction Design Institute as an easy tool for fast prototyping, aimed at students without a background in electronics and programming. As soon as it reached a wider community, the Arduino board started changing to adapt to new needs and challenges, differentiating its offer from simple 8-bit boards to products for IoT applications, wearable, 3D printing, and embedded environments. All Arduino boards are completely open-source, empowering users to build them independently and eventually adapt them to their particular needs. The software, too, is open-source, and it is growing through the contributions of users worldwide.The Arduino Software (IDE) allows you to write programs and upload them to your board.

Find the step-by-step instructions to Install the Arduino Desktop IDE select one of the following link accordingly to your operating system.

What is a Raspberry Pi?

The Raspberry Pi is a small computer that can do lots of things. You plug it into a monitor and attach a keyboard and mouse. Raspberry Pi is the third best-selling computer brand in the world. The Raspberry Pi is a credit card–sized computer that plugs into your TV or display, and a keyboard and mouse. You can use it to learn coding and to build electronics projects, and for many of the things that your desktop PC does, like spreadsheets, word processing, browsing the internet, and playing games. It also plays high-definition video. The Raspberry Pi is being used by adults and children all over the world to learn programming and digital making. You can learn how to set up and use your Raspberry Pi here.

Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+

Pi 3

 

Where can I buy a Raspberry Pi, and how much does it cost?

The following are the prices list.

Product Price
Raspberry Pi Model A+ $20
Raspberry Pi Model B+ $25
Raspberry Pi 2 Model B $35
Raspberry Pi 3 Model B $35
Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ $35
Raspberry Pi Zero $5
Raspberry Pi Zero W $10
Raspberry Pi Zero WH $15

 

You get the Raspberry Pi board itself. The official power supply and an SD card are not included, but they can be purchased at the same time from most places that sell the Raspberry Pi. You can also purchase pre-loaded SD cards.

Why Arduino and key features of Arduino ?

There are many other microcontrollers and microcontroller platforms available for physical computing. Arduino also simplifies the process of working with microcontrollers,  it also offers some advantage for teachers, students, and interested amateurs over other systems. Below are advantages of Arduino.

  • Cheap and less cost - Arduino boards are relatively inexpensive compared to other microcontroller platforms
  • Cross-platform - The Arduino Software (IDE) runs on Windows, Macintosh OSX, and Linux operating systems.
  • Simple, clear programming environment - The Arduino Software (IDE) is easy-to-use for beginners, yet flexible enough for advanced users to take advantage of as well.
  • Open source and extensible software - The Arduino software is published as open source tools, available for extension by experienced programmers.
  • Open source and extensible hardware - The plans of the Arduino boards are published under a Creative Commons license, so experienced circuit designers can make their own version of the module, extending it and improving it.

Why Raspberry Pi and Advantages of Raspberry Pi:

  • Easy to connect to the internet - Comes with inbuilt WiFi adapter.
  • Runs on Linux operating system - Fully installed operating system in Pi.
  • Can be programmed using a variety of programming languages - Can create own program to run on Python and other languages.

When to Use & Not Use Arduino and Raspberry Pi:

Choosing which IoT board completely depends on the type of project you want to make, and your experience in programming. If you have no experience in programming or electronics, you will find the Arduino easier to learn than the Raspberry Pi.

If you want to make a hardware project, then the Arduino is the best choice,If the project requires you to interact with a lot of external hardware, sensors, analog devices, then you should consider using Arduino.

If the project requires a lot to write a complex software code and complex requirements, then Arduino may not be the best options.


I hope you got a good understanding on arduino vs raspberry pi for IoT and you can also refer some of the discussion in raspberry pi vs arduino quora for more details.


You want to host a website and don't want to spend much money. Yes it is possible, setup a web server with raspberry pi using word press to create a website for free. We have seen Setting up an Apache Web Server on a Raspberry Pi in the tutorial Raspberry Pi as Web Server . We will be extending it to add wordpress on raspberry pi and how to create a website for free.

How to create a wordpress website for beginners:

We will be learning how to create a website using wordpress and below are the step need to be followed to set up a LAMP Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP stack on your Raspberry Pi and configure it to work as a web server.

Step 1: Set Up Apache Web Server
Step 2: Install PHP on Raspberry Pi.
Step 3: Install MySQL on Raspberry Pi.
Step 4: Download WordPress on Raspberry Pi.
Step 5: Configure MySQL and setup wordpress database.
Step 6: Configure WordPress

Components Required:

  1. Raspberry Pi ( Zero or model B+)
  2. A Micro USB Power supply
  3. Micro SD Card ( Recommended 8 GB)
  4. TV or Computer Monitor ( it is possible to setup raspberry pi without monitor , for now we will connect the pi to monitor)
  5. HDMI cable
  6. Ethernet Cable ( If don't have wireless)
  7. Keyboard and Mouse

I would recommend Raspberry Pi 3 model B+, which is the latest Pi available in market & this is having good specifications as listed below for good raspberry pi web server performance.

First need to install raspbian operating system on raspberry pi and have it ready to install the web server.

Follow the tutorial Setup Raspberry Pi 3 for the details. Now lets work on how to setup Webserver on Raspberry Pi.

Apache is a popular web server application you can install on the Raspberry Pi to allow it to serve web pages.

On its own, Apache can serve HTML files over HTTP, and with additional modules can serve dynamic web pages using scripting languages such as PHP.

How to create a wordpress website with raspberry pi:

Step 1: Install apache on raspberry pi

First, update the available packages by typing the following command into the Terminal:

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get upgrade

Next install apache2 package with this command

sudo apt-get install apache2 -y

By default, Apache creates a test HTML file in the web folder /var/www/html/index.html. To test the web server enter http://localhost/  or the ip address of pi  eg: http://192.168.1.xx in the web browser.  You can run the ip address of pi  eg: http://192.168.1.xx from another computer on the network.

The default web page either on the Pi or from another computer on the network when you browse to http://localhost/ or ip address of pi  eg: http://192.168.1.xx  will be as below.

This means you have apache working! and your web server is ready.

You will also be able to open this web page from any other computer on your network using the IP address of your Raspberry Pi, e.g. http://192.168.x.xx.

To find out your Raspberry Pi’s IP address, type hostname -I into the terminal window. Your Raspberry Pi’s IP address is a really useful and will allow you to remotely access it.

Lets try to change the default web-page now we received to some content we would like to show in the web page.

The default web page HTML file is located at /var/www/html/.Navigate to this directory in a terminal window and have a look at what's inside

cd /var/www/html
ls -al

This will show you:

total 12

drwxr-xr-2 root root 4096 Jan 8 01:29 .


drwxr-xr-12 root root 4096 Jan 8 01:28 ..


-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 177 Jan 8 01:29 index.html

The default HTML file is called index.html and it is owned by the root user. In order to edit the file, you need to change its ownership to your own username using the below command.

sudo chown pi: index.html.

Pi is the default username. change it with your own if you have setup different user name.

You can edit this file using leafpad and make the changes in html page.

sudo leafpad index.html

If you make a change to the file, save it, and refresh the browser, you will see your change appear.

Step 2: Install PHP

Install the PHP package with the following command

sudo apt-get install php libapache2-mod-php -y

Test php by removing index.html located at /var/www/html/and creating a php file.

sudo rm index.html

sudo leafpad index.php

Add some php content on the index.php file and save it.

<?php echo "hello world"; ?>

Now save and refresh your browser. You should see "hello world".

If you dont see “hello world”, reload and restart Apache like so:

sudo service apache2 restart

Step 3: Install MySQL

MySQL is a popular database engine. we will Install the MySQL Server and PHP-MySQL packages by entering the following commands.

sudo apt-get install mysql-server php-mysql -y

Now restart Apache:

sudo service apache2 restart

Step 4: Download and install WordPress on Raspberry Pi

You can download WordPress from wordpress.org using the wget command. The latest version of WordPress is always available at wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

Change directory to /var/www/html/ and delete all the files in the folder.
cd /var/www/html/
sudo rm *

Download WordPress

sudo wget http://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

Download WordPress

Extract the WordPress .tar file to get at the WordPress files.

sudo tar xzf latest.tar.gz

Move the contents of the extracted wordpress directory to the current directory.

sudo mv wordpress/* .

Running the ls command now will show you the contents of a WordPress .This is the source of a default WordPress installation.

Now change the ownership of all these files to the Apache user.

sudo chown -R www-data: .

Step 5: Configure MySQL and setup wordpress database.

To get your wordPress site set up, you need a database, we are using Mysql/MariaDB for this.

Run the MySQL secure installation command.

sudo mysql_secure_installation

You will be asked Enter current password for root (enter for none): — press Enter.

Type in Y and press Enter to Set root password?.

Type in a password at the New password: prompt, and press EnterImportant:remember this root password, as you will need it later to set up WordPress.

Type in Y to Remove anonymous users.

Type in Y to Disallow root login remotely.

Type in Y to Remove test database and access to it.

Type in Y to Reload privilege tables now.

When complete, you will see the message All done! and Thanks for using MariaDB!.

Create the WordPress database

Run mysql using below command:

sudo mysql -uroot -p

Enter the root password you created.

You will be greeted by the message Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.

Create the database for your WordPress installation at the MariaDB [(none)]> prompt using:

create database wordpress;

Note the semi-colon ending the statement.

If this has been successful, you should see this:

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

create database

Now grant database privileges to the root user. Note: you will need to enter your own password after IDENTIFIED BY.

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON wordpress.* TO 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'YOURPASSWORD';

For the changes to take effect, you need to flush the database privileges:

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Exit the MariaDB prompt with Ctrl + D.

Reference: https://projects.raspberrypi.org/en/projects/lamp-web-server-with-wordpress/7

Step 6: Configure WordPress

We have downloaded word press and will see how to install wordpress on raspberry pi and configure now.  Open the web browser on your Pi and goto http://localhost, you should see a WordPress page asking to pick your language.

WordPress select language

Select your language and click Continue.

Next the WordPress welcome screen will be displayed.

WordPress welcome screen

Click on the Let’s go! button and fill out the basic site information as follows:

Database Name:      wordpress
User Name:          root
Password:           <YOUR PASSWORD>
Database Host:      localhost
Table Prefix:       wp_

Click Submit to proceed and Click the Run the install button.

WordPress Welcome screen

Fill out the information: give your site a title, create a username and password, and enter your email address. Hit the Install WordPress button, then log in using the account you just created.

Now you have completed the site set up, you can see the website by visiting  http://localhost/wp-admin


Thanks for the wonderful and easy documentation from https://projects.raspberrypi.org/en/projects/lamp-web-server-with-wordpress.

As part of this tutorial you have seen how to host wordpress site on raspberry pi and I am sure you can just do it yourself now easy and quickly. Host your website, add pages, posts, try out new themes. As of now this website wi be accessible with in your home network however we can make if accessible using pubic IP of your network . We wi do it in the next tutorial.

What is a Project Charter ?

A Project Charter is a document that describes the purpose of a project and its scope, it legally authorizes the beginning of the project.It provides a preliminary delineation of roles and responsibilities, outlines the project objectives, identifies the main stakeholders, and defines the authority of the project manager. It serves as a reference of authority for the future of the project.

A project charter includes:

  • The essence of the project.
  • Provide a shared understanding of the project.
  • Act as a legal agreement between the project sponsor, key stakeholders and the project team to start the project.

The purpose of the project charter is to document:

  • Reasons for undertaking the project
  • Objectives and constraints of the project
  • Directions concerning the solution
  • Identifies the main stakeholders
  • In-scope and out-of-scope items
  • High level Risks identified
  • Target project benefits
  • High level budget and spending authority

Who creates the Project Charter or Who signs the Project Charter?

The project charter is a document that officially starts a project or a phase. It formally authorizes the existence of the project and provides a reference source for the future.It explain the business need that lead to the project being taken up.The project charter is signed by the sponsor.The charter is usually created by the sponsor or the initiator along with the project management team, however the task can be delegated to project manager.

Project Charter vs Contract

Many people do not understand the importance of a Project Charter. They believe that Project Charter does not serve any specific purpose.They do not realize Project Charter and Contract serve different purposes. They believe when contract is available project charter is not needed.

A Project charter recognizes & authorizes the project within an organization and  authorizes the start of the project whereas a Contract is a legally binding agreement between two different organizations (the Buyer and the Seller). A document issued by the Project Sponsor to the Project Manager that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the authority to the Project Manager to use organizational resources for the completing the project.

The Project charter is issued by the Project Sponsor whereas the Contract is negotiated & signed by the the buyer and the seller.Project charter gives the commitment from the Sponsor and other stakeholders to provide support to the project team.

Project Charter vs Statement of Work

We have seen the different between project charter (PC) and contract, lets talk about project charter vs sow.

To reiterate project charter formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the authority to the Project Manager to use organizational resources for the completing the project.This is mainly used for internal project management.

Statement of work is a part of project charter, however in project charter it will be very short and crisp as at the time of initiation of project you may not have the detailed information of scope.The primary function of the SOW is to specify the deliverable or deliverable's that a vendor or internal department is responsible for. It must also specify timelines and define reporting responsibilities.

The SOW begins with the Scope Statement that describes the complete requirement of  project and goes on to provide detailed information on the deliverables.The sow will consist of scope of work, deliverables, due date, task responsibility, acceptance criteria, milestones etc. The SOW will describe the project manager, clients and stakeholders how the work will be tackled.

SOW is a part of panning process group, where as project charter is done in the initiating process group.

Project Charter Elements/What Is Included in the Project Charter?

The project charter includes fundamental information used to authorize and establish the basis for a project. We can say a simple project charter includes the below contents. These are required in a project charter template.

  • Project Title
  • Project Description
  • Business Case
  • Project Manager Assigned and Authority Level
  • Stakeholders
  • Resources Assigned
  • Deliverables
  • High Level Project Risks
  • Signature and Approval

Refer the project charter sample from below..

Project charter template word download or project charter template free download from here Project Charter.

 


We have spoken about Cayenne, Blynk and other open source IoT platforms in other tutorials. We saw in the tutorial how to setup cayenne app builder with raspberry pi. In this tutorial we will work on Blynk setup with raspberry pi.

Blynk was designed for the Internet of Things. It can control hardware remotely, it can display sensor data, it can store data, visualize it and do many other cool things.

There are three major components in the platform:

  • Blynk App - allows to you create amazing interfaces for your projects using various widgets we provide.
  • Blynk Server - responsible for all the communications between the smartphone and hardware. You can use our Blynk Cloud or run your private Blynk server locally. It’s open-source, could easily handle thousands of devices and can even be launched on a Raspberry Pi.
  • Blynk Libraries - for all the popular hardware platforms - enable communication with the server and process all the incoming and out coming commands.

Blynk IoT Platform

 

Blynk can work with Arduino, Raspberry Pi, or a similar development kit. Blynk works through internet, the hardware you choose should be able to connect to the internet through ethernet of wifi. The Blynk App works through smart phone , It works on both iOS and Android,.

Blynk works with any model of Raspberry Pi over WiFi / Ethernet. Blynk doesn't support Bluetooth connection to pi.

How to install Blynk on Raspberry Pi:

For connecting blynk to raspberry pi, first we need to install blynk libraries in raspberry pi and also need to use use Node.JS or C++ for writing apps. For install blynk libraries on raspberry pi you need to install the required components git core and wiringPi. Follow the below commands to setup blynk raspberry pi server.

Make sure your Pi is up to date with the latest versions of Raspbian

sudo apt-get update

If you do not have GIT installed, you can install it with

sudo apt-get install git-core

Install WiringPi using GIT

git clone git://git.drogon.net/wiringPi

switch to wiringPi and run the buid.

cd wiringPi

./build

To install blynk globally run the below commands:

git clone https://github.com/blynkkk/blynk-library.git

cd blynk-library/linux

make clean all target=raspberry

Now you have blynk library for raspberry pi installed . To start working with blynk and raspberry pi we need to install blynk app on smart phone.

Another way is using Node.js and Blynk Installation

Check if Node.js is installed,

Run the command in terminal on your board

node --version
or
nodejs --version

If you get the version then Node.Js is installed.
If not you can insta Node.Js using the below commands.

Add repositories:

curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_6.x | sudo -E bash -

Install Node.js:

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get install build-essential nodejs -y

Install Blynk globally

sudo npm install -g npm
sudo npm install -g onoff
sudo npm install -g blynk-library

How to connect Raspberry Pi and Blynk:

Download blynk app and create an account by entering email address password and click on sign up..


Blynk application can be found from the following links -

1. Android Blynk App

2. IOS Blynk App

Click the “Create New Project” in the app to create a new Blynk app. Give a name and select device Raspberry Pi and connection type WiFi ( if pi is connected through WiFi), click create .

The Auth token will be assigned and this can be send to the email. The Auth token will be used for connecting from raspberry pi to the new project widget.

Open the blank project and add widgets. Lets add a button for led.From the widget box select button and give the name as LED. Select the pins ad digital pins and the pin number in Raspberry pi to which the led is connected.

 

You have the widget ready now.

Connect the raspberry pi to the blynk widget running the Auth token command.

blynk-client "your auth token"

This should print out something like below.

Connecting to SSL: cloud.blynk.cc 8441
Connected, authorized
Blynk ready.

Raspberry pi is connected with your blynk raspberry pi projects. Click the “Run” button in the top right corner of the Blynk app and press the button on Blynk app and watch the LED.You can add more widget to the project.


We  have seen how to build home security system with email notification in the tutorial with out using Camera. In my previous posts we have also seen other IoT Projects with raspberry Pi and how to use Cayenne to create triggers. Here we will be extending home security email alert system using raspberry pi to the next level . We will add Raspberry Pi Camera in to our setup to capture the image and send to the email when the intruder is detected.  The project will be using Python script to capture the image from the camera and send in email when detecting any trespassers movement and .We can call this a IoT project as simple Home Security Email Alert Systems with Camera (smart surveillance monitoring system using raspberry pi and pir sensor).

The components needed:

  1. Raspberry Pi
  2. PIR Motion Sensor
  3. Raspberry Pi Camera
  4. Connecting wires
  5. Power supply for Pi

We will be building this security system using raspberry pi with motion detection camera and above are the required components. PIR sensor will detect the motion (presence of intruder), the image will be captured at the time of sensor detected any motion and that system will alert you immediately by sending an email with the attachment of intruder image .You can install the sensor in front of your door , or any other place and you will be notified about the intruder even if you are any where in the world.

Connection:

First you need to Set up the Raspberry Pi 3 for the project. For setting up the raspberry pi with operating system follow my tutorial. Download the image and install it on the SD card, Connect to WIFI or ethernet cable.

PIR sensor has 3 pins, labelled VCC, OUT and GND. We will be using Raspberry PI pins 4 (5V) , 6 (GND) and 7 (GPIO4).Lets connect the PIR sensor to the Raspberry Pi, use Female to Female Jumper wires or you can use Breadboard in between the connections.Connect the PIN labelled as VCC on the PIR sensor to the 5V pin on the Raspberry Pi, connect the middle one labelled OUT to Pin GPIO4, and connect the Pin labelled as GND to a ground pin 6. Connect the Raspberry pi camera to the Camera port. Depending upon whether you are using Raspberry Pi 3 B+ or Raspberry Pi zero the Camera cable will change, make sure you purchase the right camera for your device.

Raspberry Pi Camera

 

Raspberry pi camera security cam is setup now and we have write the python code for motion detection camera email alert. To run the program open Python Idle and copy the below code in to it. Change the "your email address" , "To email address" and "your password" to your respective emails and password.  We are using gmail here so you should use Gmail email address, otherwise it wont work. If you are using any other email address change the SMTP and port for the respective email configuration.

Raspberry Pi Camera and Email

Enable Raspberry Pi Camera by using Raspberry Pi Software Configuration Tool (raspi-config) once you have the camera connected to pi:

sudo raspi-config

Select Enable camera and Enable it.

After successfully installing Raspbian OS on Raspberry Pi, we need to install Pi camera library files for running this project in Raspberry pi. Follow given commands to install the libraries:

sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install python-picamera

sudo apt-get installpython3-picamera

We need to install the libraries for sending mails using SMTP using the below commands:

​sudo apt-get install ssmtp

sudo apt-get install mailutils​

 For sending simple email, smtplib is enough but for sending mail with subject line, attachment etc. we need to use MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions).

Raspberry Pi Security Camera Motion Detection and Email :

Program 1 : This is the extended version which I used for normal email alert when motion detected.

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import picamera
from picamera import PiCamera
import time
import smtplib
from email.MIMEMultipart import MIMEMultipart
from email.MIMEText import MIMEText
from email.MIMEBase import MIMEBase
from email import encoders
from email.mime.image import MIMEImage

fromaddr = "your email address"    # change the email address accordingly
toaddr = "To email address"           # change the email address accordingly
 
mail = MIMEMultipart()
mail['From'] = fromaddr
mail['To'] = toaddr
mail['Subject'] = "Intruder Alert!, Motion detected!"
body = "Find the attached for the intruder picture"

PIRSensor = 4

GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
GPIO.setup(PIRSensor, GPIO.IN, GPIO.PUD_DOWN)

camera = PiCamera()

def capture_image():

data= time.strftime("%d_%b_%Y|%H:%M:%S")
camera.start_preview()
time.sleep(5)
print data
camera.capture('/home/pi/Pictures/img%s.png'%data)
img= '/home/pi/Pictures/img%s.png'%data
camera.stop_preview()
time.sleep(1)

Current_State = 0
Previous_State = 0

try:

print "Waiting for PIR to settle ..."

# Loop until PIR output is 0
while GPIO.input(PIRSensor)==1:
Current_State = 0

print " Ready"

# Loop until users quits with CTRL-C
while True :

# Read PIR state
Current_State = GPIO.input(PIRSensor)

if Current_State==1 and Previous_State==0:
# PIR is triggered
print " Intruder Alert!, Motion detected!"

#Capture Image
capture_image()
#Send mail

mail.attach(MIMEText(body, 'plain'))
attachment = open(img, 'rb')
image=MIMEImage(attachment.read())
attachment.close()
mail.attach(image)
server = smtplib.SMTP('smtp.gmail.com', 587)
server.starttls()
server.login(fromaddr, "your password")
text = mail.as_string()
server.sendmail(fromaddr, toaddr, text)
server.quit()

# Record previous state
Previous_State=1
elif Current_State==0 and Previous_State==1:
# PIR has returned to ready state
print " Ready"
Previous_State=0

# Wait for 10 milliseconds
time.sleep(0.05)

except KeyboardInterrupt:
print " Quit"

# Reset GPIO settings
GPIO.cleanup()

Program 2:

To simplify the above program lets make a function together for capturing the image and sending email when raspberry pi security camera motion detection.

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import picamera
from picamera import PiCamera
import time
import smtplib
from email.MIMEMultipart import MIMEMultipart
from email.MIMEText import MIMEText
from email.MIMEBase import MIMEBase
from email import encoders
from email.mime.image import MIMEImage

fromaddr = "your email address"    # change the email address accordingly
toaddr = "To email address"           # change the email address accordingly
 
mail = MIMEMultipart()
mail['From'] = fromaddr
mail['To'] = toaddr
mail['Subject'] = "Intruder Alert!, Motion detected!"
body = "Find the attached for the intruder picture"

PIRSensor = 4

GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
GPIO.setup(PIRSensor, GPIO.IN, GPIO.PUD_DOWN)

camera = PiCamera()

def capture_image():

data= time.strftime("%d_%b_%Y|%H:%M:%S")
camera.start_preview()
time.sleep(5)
print data
camera.capture('/home/pi/Pictures/img%s.png'%data)
img= '/home/pi/Pictures/img%s.png'%data
camera.stop_preview()
time.sleep(1)
mail.attach(MIMEText(body, 'plain'))
attachment = open(img, 'rb')
image=MIMEImage(attachment.read())
attachment.close()
mail.attach(image)
server = smtplib.SMTP('smtp.gmail.com', 587)
server.starttls()
server.login(fromaddr, "your password")
text = mail.as_string()
server.sendmail(fromaddr, toaddr, text)
server.quit()

while True :


# Read PIR state
Current_State = GPIO.input(PIRSensor)

if Current_State==1:
# PIR is triggered
print " Intruder Alert!, Motion detected!"

#Capture Image and send email
capture_image()

elif Current_State==0 :
# PIR has returned to ready state
print " Ready"

# Wait for 10 milliseconds
time.sleep(0.05)

except KeyboardInterrupt:
print " Quit"
# Reset GPIO settings
GPIO.cleanup()

What is IoT ? or What is Internet of Things ?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

Simply we can say IoT is a system of things integrated with sensors, software's, electronics which are connected to each other & can exchange data or Information with other connected devices.

What do you mean by IoT platforms?

The IoT platforms are suites of components those help to setup and manage the internet connected devices to remotely collect data, monitor and manage all internet connected devices from a single system. IoT platforms are the support software that connects everything in an IoT system. An IoT platform facilitates communication, data flow, device management, and the functionality of applications.

I have covered the major enterprise IoT platform companies and few open source Internet of things platforms in the article top IoT platform companies.

In this article we will talk about some of the best and well-known open source Internet of things and open source iot platform comparison.

10 Top Open Source IoT Platform :

  • Kaa IoT Platform

Kaa is an enterprise-grade IoT platform built on a modern cloud-native architecture and a fully customizable feature set. Based on flexible microservices, Kaa easily adapts to almost any need and application. It scales from a tiny start-up to a massive corporation and supports advanced deployment models for multicloud IoT solutions.

Kaa is a highly flexible, multi-purpose, 100% open-source middleware platform for implementing complete end-to-end IoT solutions, connected applications, and smart products. For a quick start, Kaa offers a set of out-of-the-box enterprise-grade IoT features that can be easily plugged in and used to implement a large majority of the IoT use cases. The platform features include device management, data collection, configuration management, messaging, and more.The Kaa IoT platform is licensed under Apache Software License 2.0. See LICENSE and copyright.txt for details.

Kaa IoT Platform

Kaa Key IoT features:

  • Modern microservice architecture : Simplifies customization and ensures effective separation of concerns between different parts of the platform
  • Freedom of technology: You can use your favorite programming languages and DevOps tools
  • Scalable, elastic, and self-healing: Enterprise-grade scalability and resilience
  • Freedom of deployment: Public, private, or mixed cloud deployment on any infrastructure of your choice
  • Open IoT protocols: The platform runs on open protocols, supports MQTT by default
  • Security: TLS or DTLS by default, flexible credentials lifecycle management
  • Blueprints: Enable the Infrastructure as Code approach for managing your clusters

Kaa is one of the best IoT platforms open source newly in the market, you have both community version and enterprise version available.

Website: https://www.kaaproject.org/

  • ThingSpeak (open IoT platform with MATLAB analytics)

ThingSpeak™ is an IoT analytics platform service that allows you to aggregate, visualize and analyze live data streams in the cloud. ThingSpeak provides instant visualizations of data posted by your devices to ThingSpeak. With the ability to execute MATLAB® code in ThingSpeak you can perform online analysis and processing of the data as it comes in. ThingSpeak is often used for prototyping and proof of concept IoT systems that require analytics.

Thingspeak

Key Features:

ThingSpeak allows you to aggregate, visualize and analyze live data streams in the cloud. Some of the key capabilities of ThingSpeak include the ability to:

  • Easily configure devices to send data to ThingSpeak using popular IoT protocols.
  • Visualize your sensor data in real-time.
  • Aggregate data on-demand from third-party sources.
  • Use the power of MATLAB to make sense of your IoT data.
  • Run your IoT analytics automatically based on schedules or events.
  • Prototype and build IoT systems without setting up servers or developing web software.
  • Automatically act on your data and communicate using third-party services like Twilio® or Twitter®

Website: https://thingspeak.com/

  • Thingsboard.io

ThingsBoard is an open-source IoT platform for data collection, processing, visualization, and device management. ThingsBoard is an open-source IoT platform that enables rapid development, management and scaling of IoT projects. The goal is to provide the out-of-the-box IoT cloud or on-premises solution that will enable server-side infrastructure for your IoT applications.

It enables device connectivity via industry standard IoT protocols - MQTT, CoAP and HTTP and supports both cloud and on-premises deployments. ThingsBoard combines scalability, fault-tolerance and performance so you will never lose your data.

Thingsboard

Thingsboard Key Features:

  • Scalable: horizontally scalable platform, build using leading open-source technologies.
  • Fault-tolerant: no single-point-of-failure, every node in the cluster is identical.
  • Robust and efficient: single server node can handle tens or even hundreds thousands of devices depending on use-case. ThingsBoard cluster can handle millions of devices.
  • Customizable: adding new functionality is easy with customizable widgets and rule engine nodes.
  • Durable: never lose your data.

Refer the documentation to get the complete details about Thingsboard. We will be using Thingsboard community edition for our IoT Projects and is free iot platform raspberry pi, arduino etc..

  • Thinger.io

Thinger.io is an open source platform for internet of things,Connect and Manage your Internet of Things products within minutes.They offer a ready to go scalable cloud infrastructure for connecting millions of devices. You can control them with our easy to use admin console, or integrate them in your business logic with our REST API.

Thinger IoT Platform

Thinger IoT Patform Key Feature:

  • Open Source: Install the server in your own cloud and use the Open Source libraries for connecting your devices.
  • Easy Coding: Turning on a light from the Internet or reading a sensor value requires a single line of code on the MCU. But that’s not all.
  • Hardware agnostic: Connect anything you want. Arduino, ESP8266, Raspberry Pi, Intel Edison? That’s not a problem.
  • For Makers: Makers can register for free accounts to start building their IoT projects in minutes, just using our cloud infrastructure.
  • Cloud Platform: Although the Thinger.io platform is an Open Source platform for the Internet of Things, it provides a ready to use scalable cloud infrastructure for connecting things. Makers and companies can start controlling their devices from the internet in minutes, without worrying about the required cloud infrastructure.

Website: https://thinger.io/

  • Ubidots

Ubidots offers a platform for developers that enables them to easily capture sensor data and turn it into useful information. Connect, Develop, and Deploy IoT Applications with Ubidots Intuative IoT Development Platform.System Integrators and OEMs effortlessly self-construct Internet of Things (IoT) applications and products with Ubidots’ data collection, analysis, and visualization tools to deliver agile solutions that improve a company’s KPIs and/or services.

Ubidots IoT Platform

Ubidots IoT platform Key Feature: 

  • Easily Connect: Connect your hardware and/or digital data-services to Ubidots’ device agnostic cloud with our REST API and deliver customized IoT and Cloud solutions the way you want.
  • Device friendly API and SDKs: Connect hardware to Ubidots cloud easily with more than 200 user-proven libraries, SDKs, and tutorials to guide your integration over HTTP, MQTT, TCP, UDP, or by Parsing custom/industrial protocols.
  • Point-and-click Cloud Application Development: Develop your business’ solutions with Ubidots’ intuitive, code-free application development tools: Rules & Events Engine, Scheduled Reporting, Real-time dashboards, and more.
  • White-label customer-specific Applications: Deploy custom applications to end-users with your Company’s branding, URLs, colors plus customize alert messages, languages, and more to deliver your solutions the way you want.
  • User Management : With Ubidots cloud software, administrators self-build applications to best fit the operator's needs. Assign permissions and restrictions to any end-user or operator who interacts with dashboards, devices, and/or events.

Website: https://ubidots.com/

  • Cayenne

Mydevices Cayenne: 

When we hear cayenne first things comes is Porsche Cayenne or Cayenne Pepper for those are food crazy :). That is not what talking here, we are talking about MyDevices Cayenne who claims that they are the first drag and drop IoT Project builder. Cayenne is the world’s first drag and drop IoT project builder that empowers developers, designers and engineers to quickly prototype and share their connected device projects. Cayenne was designed to help users create Internet of Things prototypes and then bring them to production.

Design prototypes and complete IoT solutions with my device Cayenne app in any device or connection.Cayenne IoT ready program for hardware manufacturers will easily enable micro controllers , gateways, sensors and other devices to connect to Internet of Things. Refer the tutorial on simple iot drag and drop app builder cayenne app to know about the detail process on how to sign up in Cayenne and configure for your IoT projects. This is one of the best IoT platform for raspberry pi which is easy and not much programming required.

Mydevices Cayenne

Mydevices Cayenne Key Features:

  1. Triggers
  2. Data Visualization
  3. Remote Monitoring
  4. SMS & Email Alerts
  5. IoT Cloud
  6. Asset Tracking
  • Blynk

Blynk is a Platform with iOS and Android apps to control Arduino, Raspberry Pi and the likes over the Internet.

It's a digital dashboard where you can build a graphic interface for your project by simply dragging and dropping widgets.

It's really simple to set everything up and you'll start tinkering in less than 5 mins.

Blynk  is not tied to some specific board or shield. Instead, it's supporting hardware of your choice. Whether your Arduino or Raspberry Pi  is linked to the Internet over Wi-Fi, Ethernet or this new ESP8266 chip, Blynk will get you online and ready for the Internet Of Your Things.

You can download Blynk app from below links and it is one of the best free iot platform for arduino.

Free Blynk app from IOS App store and Play Store.

Blynk IoT Platform

Blynk IoT Platform Key Features: 

  • Similar API & UI for all supported hardware & devices
  • Connection to the cloud using:
    • WiFi
    • Bluetooth and BLE
    • Ethernet
    • USB (Serial)
    • GSM
  • Set of easy-to-use Widgets
  • Direct pin manipulation with no code writing
  • Easy to integrate and add new functionality using virtual pins
  • History data monitoring via SuperChart widget
  • Device-to-Device communication using Bridge Widget
  • Sending emails, tweets, push notifications, etc.

Website: https://www.blynk.cc/

  • Mainflux

Mainflux is highly secure, scalable, open-source IoT platform written in Go and deployed in Docker. It serves as software infrastructure and set of microservices for development of the Internet of Things Solutions and deployment of Intelligent products.

Mainflux is an open-source IoT cloud platform for the development of Internet of Things solutions, IoT applications and intelligent products. Mainflux software infrastructure stack contains all necessary components and microservices required for fully functional IoT solutions. The IoT Cloud Platform will facilitate the interoperability of the IoT solution with existing enterprise applications and other IoT solutions.

Mainflux IoT Plaform

Mainflux IoT Platform Key Feature: 

  • Responsive and scalable architecture based on a set of microservices
  • Set of clean APIs: HTTP RESTful, MQTT, WebSocket and CoAP
  • SDK - set of client libraries for many HW platforms in several programming languages: C/C++, JavaScript, Go and Python
  • Device management and provisioning and OTA FW updates
  • Highly secured connections via TLS and DTLS
  • Enhanced and fine-grained security via deployment-ready Mainflux Authentication and Authorization Server with Access Control scheme based on customizable API keys and scoped JWT
  • Easy deployment and high system scalability via Docker images
  • Clear project roadmap, extensive development ecosystem and highly skilled developer community

Website: https://www.mainflux.com/

  • WSo2

WSO2 is an open source technology provider. It offers an enterprise platform for integrating APIs, applications, and web services locally and across the Internet. WSO2 Named a Leader in The Forrester Wave™: API Management Solutions, Q4 2018 Report.The WSO2 Integration Agile Platform is a broad framework to develop, reuse, run and manage integrations. It's architected around a common code base of fully open source integration technologies. Components can be used individually, or as a cohesive integration-agile platform

WSo2 Key Features:

  • First-in-the-industry integration agile methodology: Our agile transformation methodology helps IT transform to an integration agile model. You get faster releases and quicker responsiveness to the business.
  • Unique open source technology and licensing: Unlike open core products, our approach to open source ensures the benefits of community contributions, freedom from cloud lock-in, and the value-add of support patch binaries.
  • Broadest integrated platform: No need to mix-and-match different API management, integration, identity, analytics or microservice technologies from multiple vendors. We offer a common architecture across all of them.

Website: https://wso2.com/

  • OpenIoT

OpenIoT is perceived as a natural extension to cloud computing implementations, which will allow access to additional and increasingly important IoT based resources and capabilities. OpenIoT is pertinent to a wide range of interrelated scientific and technological areas spanning: (a) Middleware for sensors and sensor networks, (b) Ontologies, semantic models and annotations for representing internet-connected objects, along with semantic open-linked data techniques (c) Cloud/Utility computing, including utility based security and privacy schemes.

OpenIoT is simple to use, connect all your sensors and make them a natural extension of your IoT solution, enabling accessibility to IoT based resources,enabling accessibility to IoT based resources and their capabilities.

OpenIoT Platform

Open IoT Key Features: 

  • Easy to use and deploy IoT agent
  • Inbuilt dashboard to create rules, graphs and catalog items
  • Full RESTful JSON API supported
  • Realtime actuations (cloud -> IoT device)

Website: http://www.openiot.eu/

We have seen a huge amount of details in this tutorial, the major IoT platform open source comparison. I have tried to cover as much as possible information received on each platform incorporated here. Go through individual platform websites for more information and select which open source IoT platform is suitable for your needs.Hoping the above open source IoT platform comparison table gives a of you information to start your IoT Projects.


Project Integration Management: 

Project integration management is one of the key knowledge area in PMBOK which cuts across all 5 Process groups. The knowledge area talks about 7 processes which coordinate all aspects of a project.

What is Integration ?

Integration is the action or process of combining or consolidating or in-cooperating different things together.

What is project integration management ?

 

Project integration management definition is the processes and activities that are carried out to identify, combine and coordinate the various project management processes with in project management process groups.

Project integration management is one of the 10 project management knowledge areas touches all five phases of a project:

  • Initiating
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Monitoring and controlling
  • Closing

Project integration management is a way of making various processes work together, When properly performed project integration management ensures smoothly run project. That is why the importance of project integration management is high in project management. Project integration management very important knowledge area for project managers, it cannot be delegated or handed over to others. The project manager is ultimate responsible for the success of project.

Project integration management processes :

The project integration management processes are :

  • Develop project charter
  • Develop project management plan
  • Direct and manage project work
  • Manage project knowledge
  • Monitor and control project work
  • Perform integrated change control
  • Close project or phase

Project Integration Management processes

There are 7 project integration management processes and each of these processes contributes to overall project integration management and project success. Let's have a detailed look at each one from project integration management processes list.

1. Develop project charter:

what is project charter in project management ?

A project charter is the document that states a project exists and provides the project manager written authority to begin project work.

A project charter should:

  • Contain the essence of the project.
  • Provide a shared understanding of the project.
  • Act as a contract between the project sponsor, key stakeholders and the project team.

Develop project charter is the process of developing the project charter document that formally authorize the existence of the project and the project manager is given the authority to use organizational resources to project activities. Develop project charter is part of initiating process groups.

Project integration management tools and technique, we will briefly look what are the major inputs (Inputs for project charter) , tools and techniques, outputs for each process.

Inputs: Business case, benefits management plan, agreements, EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, brainstorming, focus groups, interviews, meetings etc.

Outputs: Project charter and assumptions.

By default the output of this processes is project charter document and the assumptions.

Develop Project Charter

2. Develop project management plan:

The project management plan is the consolidated plan of all other management plans, such as the scope management plan, cost management plan, quality management plan, process improvement plan, human resource plan, communication management plan, procurement management plan etc.

Develop project management plan is the process of defining, preparing and consolidation or integration of all plans together in to project management plan. The project management plan is a summary and consolidation of the other management plans that provides a quick overview of the entire project.

lets look at the iito for this process.

Inputs: Project Charter,  EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, brainstorming, focus groups, interviews, meetings,checklists etc.

Outputs: Project Management Plan

Develop Project Management Plan

The project management plan defines how the project is executed , monitored and controlled, closed. Project management plan should be baselined.

3. Direct and manage project work:

Direct and manage project work is the process for directing the defined work as per project management plan and change requests are implemented to achieves project goals. This process manages the deliverables and project work for project success.

Inputs: Project Management plan, Change logs, Risk Register, Approved changes, Project schedule,  EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, Project management information system, meetings.

Outputs: Deliverables, Work Performance Data, Issue log, Change requests, Project management plan updates, Project document updates, OPA updates.

4. Manage project knowledge:

Manage project knowledge is a new process added in PMBOK6 version. Manage project knowledge is a process for managing knowledge and creating new knowledge to achieve the projects objectives. Organization process assets is the storage of knowledge and it is leveraged in this process. The knowledge created by the project is captured and is updated in the organizational process asset.

Inputs: Project Management plan, llbp register ( lessons learnt and best practices), Deliverables, Project documents,  EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, Knowledge management,  Information management,etc

Outputs: lessons learned register, Project management plan updates, OPA updates.

5. Monitor and control project work:

This process is to collect the performance data of the project and benchmark it with targets.

Monitor and control project work is the process of tracking, reviewing and reporting the overall progress of the project and evaluate the current performance of the project and take necessary action to to address the issues. This allows the transparent information to stakeholders on how the project is progressing.

Inputs: Project Management plan, , Project documents, Work performance data, agreements,  EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, Data analysis ( Earned value analysis, Trend analysis,Cost benefit analysis etc) , decision making etc

Outputs: work performance report, change requests, lessons learned register, Project management plan updates, Project document updates.

6. Perform integrated change control:

Perform integrated change control is one of the important process or activity. Perform integrated change control is the process of reviewing all change requests and approving the changes. When approving change request it is required to consider the impact of the project objectives. Also any changes will lead to change in deliverables, update in project documents, project management plan updates, etc. One of the key parameter to be evaluated as part of integrated change control is risk analysis, what are the risks in approving the change to the project deliverables and goals.

Inputs: Project Management plan( Change management plan) , Project documents, Work performance report, Change requests,  EEF and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, Change control tools,Data analysis, decision making, meetings etc

Outputs: Approved change requests, Project management plan updates, Project document updates.

7. Close project or phase:

Close project or phase is the process of final closure of the project activities or contract. The lessons learned from the project is captured and updated. The project can close because of successfull completion and stakeholders agreed for the deliverables , the project can be also closed because it is not giving any benefits to the organization.

Inputs: Project charter, Project Management plan , Project documents, accepted deliverables, agreements and OPA

Tools and Techniques: Expert judgment, Data analysis,  meetings etc

Outputs: Final report, Final product or service, Project document updates ( lessons learned register).

Relate your project and map each activity with above processes as project integration management example.


Are you a blogger or web page developer ? You want to host a website and don't want to spend much money. Yes it is possible, setup a web server with raspberry pi. one of amazing uses for raspberry pi listed in my article is raspberry pi web server.This raspberry pi web server tutorial will describe the steps for how to make a Raspberry Pi Web Server.

Components Required:

  1. Raspberry Pi ( Zero or model B+)
  2. A Micro USB Power supply
  3. Micro SD Card ( Recommended 8 GB)
  4. TV or Computer Monitor ( it is possible to setup raspberry pi without monitor , for now we will connect the pi to monitor)
  5. HDMI cable
  6. Ethernet Cable ( If don't have wireless)
  7. Keyboard and Mouse

I would recommend Raspberry Pi 3 model B+, which is the latest Pi available in market & this is having good specifications as listed below for good raspberry pi web server performance.

  • Quad Core 1.2GHz Broadcom BCM2837 64bit CPU
  • 1GB RAM
  • BCM43438 wireless LAN and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) on board
  • 100 Base Ethernet
  • 40-pin extended GPIO
  • 4 USB 2 ports
  • 4 Pole stereo output and composite video port
  • Full size HDMI
  • CSI camera port for connecting a Raspberry Pi camera
  • DSI display port for connecting a Raspberry Pi touchscreen display
  • Micro SD port for loading your operating system and storing data
  • Upgraded switched Micro USB power source up to 2.5A

 

First need to install raspbian operating system on raspberry pi and have it ready to install the web server.

Follow the tutorial Setup Raspberry Pi 3 for the details. Now lets work on how to setup Webserver on Raspberry Pi.

Apache is a popular web server application you can install on the Raspberry Pi to allow it to serve web pages.

On its own, Apache can serve HTML files over HTTP, and with additional modules can serve dynamic web pages using scripting languages such as PHP.

How to install a web server on the Raspberry Pi :

Install apache on raspberry pi

First, update the available packages by typing the following command into the Terminal:

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get upgrade

Next install apache2 package with this command:

sudo apt-get install apache2 -y

Its pretty simple , isn't it ?

By default, Apache creates a test HTML file in the web folder /var/www/html/index.html. To test the web server enter http://localhost/  or the ip address of pi  eg: http://192.168.1.xx in the web browser.  You can run the ip address of pi  eg: http://192.168.1.xx from another computer on the network.

The default web page either on the Pi or from another computer on the network when you browse to http://localhost/ or ip address of pi  eg: http://192.168.1.xx  will be as below.

This means you have apache working! and your web server is ready.

Lets try to change the default web-page now we received to some content we would like to show in the web page.

The default web page HTML file is located at /var/www/html/.Navigate to this directory in a terminal window and have a look at what's inside.

cd /var/www/html
ls -al

This will show you:

total 12
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jan 8 01:29 .
drwxr-xr-x 12 root root 4096 Jan 8 01:28 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 177 Jan 8 01:29 index.html

The default HTML file is called index.html and it is owned by the root user.In order to edit the file, you need to change its ownership to your own username using the below command.

sudo chown pi: index.html.

Pi is the default username. change it with your own if you have setup different user name.

You can edit this file using leafpad and make the changes in html page.

sudo leafpad index.html

If you make a change to the file, save it, and refresh the browser, you will see your change appear.

Additionally  Install PHP :

PHP is a preprocessor: it’s code that runs when the server receives a request for a web page via a web browser. It works out what needs to be shown on the page, and then sends that page to the browser. Unlike static HTML, PHP can show different content under different circumstances. PHP is a very popular language on the web.

Install the PHP package with the following command

sudo apt-get install php libapache2-mod-php -y

Test php by removing index.html located at /var/www/html/and creating a php file.

sudo rm index.html

sudo leafpad index.php

Add some php content on the index.php file and save it.

<?php echo "hello world"; ?>

Now save and refresh your browser. You should see "hello world".


Reference links https://projects.raspberrypi.org/en/projects/lamp-web-server-with-wordpress/ and https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/remote-access/web-server/apache.md



In my previous post 10 pmp sample questions and answers  I have shared 10 sample project management questions and answers, also refer sample pmp questions and 20 sample pmp questions and answers for more project management quiz questions answers.

In this post I will be sharing few more project management multiple choice questions and answers, try it out and check your knowledge on project management. For the answer of project management sample exam questions and answers scroll down the bottom of this page.

1. Project managers have the highest level of authority and the most power in which type of organizational structure?

a) Projectized
b) Strong Matrix
c) Functional
d) Balanced Matrix

2. What is one of the most important skills a project manager can have?

a) Negotiation skills
b) Influencing skills
c) Communication skills
d) Problem Solving skills

3. Which of the following contracts should you use for projects that have a degree of uncertainty and require a large investment early in the project life cycle?

a) Fixed Price
b) Cost Reimbursable
c) lump Sum
d) Unit Price

4. A Project manager would find team development the most difficult in which form of organization ?

a) Weak Matrix Organization
b) Balanced Matrix Organization
c) Projectized Organization
d) Tight Matrix Organization

5. A narrative description of products or services to be supplied under contract is called ?

a) The project plan
b) A statement of work
c) An exception report
d) Pareto analysis

6. All of the following are contract types except:

a) Unit Price
b) Make or Buy
c) Cost Reimbursable
d) lump Sum

7. Which type of leadership is best suited for optimizing team performance in projects?

a) Democratic leadership
b) Participative leadership
c) Autocratic leadership
d) Authoritative leadership

8. What are the 4 stages of team development?

a) Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing
b) Enthusiasm, Hope, Panic, Solution
c) Forming, Solutioning, Normalizing, Communicating
d) Direction, Motivation, Cooperation, Collaboration

9. Your IT Company is responsible for making software virus programs. You are responsible for managing both individual product releases and co-ordination of multiple released over time. Your role is that of a :

a) Project Manager
b) Program Manager
c) Functional Manager
d) Operations Manager

10. Which of the following is not a feature of a project?

a) Constrained by limited resources
b) Planned , executed and controlled
c) Creates unique product or service
d) May be ongoing and repetitive

Answers for above project management questions and answers with multiple choices are listed below:

  1. a) Projectized
  2. c) Communication skills
  3. b) Cost Reimbursable
  4. a) Weak Matrix Organization
  5. b) A statement of work
  6. b) Make or Buy
  7. b) Participative leadership
  8. a) Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing
  9. b) Program Manager
  10. d) May be ongoing and repetitive

Most of the questions are related organization, Project manager skills, contracts and team development.

Hope this is helpful and  we will see more with project management quiz questions answers in coming posts.

We all like to spent lot of time in front of TV, do you like to have a media center to watch your favorite movies and programs in big screen? how do you do that!. yes raspberry pi media center is the answer.

What is Kodi?

Kodi (formerly XBMC) is a free and open-source media player software application developed by the XBMC Foundation, a non-profit technology consortium. Kodi is available for multiple operating systems and hardware platforms, with a software 10-foot user interface for use with televisions and remote controls.

Kodi is a free media player that is designed to look great on your big screen TV: kodi.tv

Want to create your own home theater ? Lets find out how with the Raspberry Pi and the OSMC media center!.

Turn Your Raspberry Pi Into a Home Media Center:

In this tutorial has everything you will ever need to know about using Kodi on the Raspberry Pi 3. Lets start with the process to turn your raspberry pi into a media centre.

Components needed:

Setup for a Raspberry Pi 3 b+ media center:

There are few different ways you can convert your raspberry Pi in to a media center. There are multiple Raspberry pi images available specific for media center use. those Operating system comes with inbuilt Kodi installed. we can also install Kodi on top of normal Raspbian operating system. However I would recommend to have a separate installation of any one of LibreELEC, OpenElec and OSMC media center operating system in a dedicated SD card for better performance. Lets see manual and image installation to turn your raspberry pi into a media centre.

Install Kodi Operating System on Your Raspberry Pi:

  • kodi manual install on raspbian:

To get Kodi running on Raspbian, you’ll need to make the operating system up to date. First, update packages, then check for updates:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

Once raspberry pi is updated , you are ready to install KODI.

sudo apt-get install kodi

Once the installation is competed you will be able to see KODI under Sounds and VIdeo.

Install add-ons for respective program and you are ready to go. I have faced black screen on kodi startup. If you face the same issue or blank screen on kodi startup, you will need to create standalone shortcut for Kodi . You will be able to see the articles on how to fix kodi black screen for it google.

  • Kodi install with image:

You have three main operating systems here to install kodi media center LibreELEC, OpenElec and OSMC.

NOOBS contains LibreELEC and you can install it through NOOBS, refer my tutorial on how to setup NOOBS on raspberry Pi 3.

NOOBS boot Up screen

We will use LibreELEC image to install on Raspberry Pi .

Go to https://libreelec.tv/downloads/ and download the image file.

Before we copy the LibreELEC image to the SD card , it has to be formatted. Use the software SD Memory Card formatter to do the same. Download the Card Formatter from https://www.sdcard.org/downloads/formatter_4/index.html & install it on your PC. When you go to the download page , you can select download respective to your PC operating system, & then click on Agree in license agreement.

Go the downloaded folder & run the SDcardformatterXXXsetup.exe . Once the installation is completed you will be able to select the drive from the drop down to the SD Card drive letter. Make sure you are selecting the right drive letter when formatting. Use SD Card reader to insert Micro SD card & connect to the PC. Once you selected the drive letter correctly, click on format.

To create bootable USB or SD Card installation media for any LibreELEC supported platform please download the “LibreELEC USB-SD Creator” or you can use  Etcher or Win32DiskImager. Once installed, launch Etcher or Win32DiskImager or LibreELEC USB-SD Creator, making sure the microSD card is inserted into your computer’s card reader click elsect image to browse for the LibreELEC or OpenElec or OSMC image file, then confirm the correct drive letter is displayed under Select drive. Finally, click Write/Flash.

Refer the article how to install Retropie on Raspberry Pi.


Remove your SD card and insert into your Raspberry Pi. Next time you boot, Kodi is ready to use.

How to install Kodi Repository?

You need to install Kodi add-ons to make use of Kodi to stream the videos and movies.

  • Open Kodi > System > File Manager > Double click Add Source > Select None > Type URL http:xxxx > Click Done > Then Press OK > Type Name ‘Repo name’ > Click Done > Press OK.

  • Go to Kodi Home Screen > System > Add–ons > Install from Zip File.

  • Locate and Click ‘ Repo name’ > Repo.zip
  • Install from Repository > Repo name > Video Add–ons >"Seect the app"> Install > Wait for the "App "add-on to install. Enjoy streaming your favorite movies and TV shows.

Refer the link How to Install Exodus & New Exodus on Kodi

Are you thinking how to turn a raspberry pi into a ps3 controller or how to turn a raspberry pi into a gameboy or are you thinking whether is it possible to convert your raspberry pi in to a gaming system ?  Then you are in the right page, we will be going through the step by step process on  how to build a Raspberry Pi retro game console.

What is RetroPie?

RetroPie allows you to turn your Raspberry Pi into a retro-gaming machine. It builds upon Raspbian, EmulationStation, RetroArch and many other projects to enable you to play your favorite Arcade, home-console, and classic PC games with the minimum set-up. For power users it also provides a large variety of configuration tools to customize the system as you want. Retropie lets you entire childhood is within reach!.

RetroPie

What is an Emulator?

An emulator is software that makes a computer behave like another computer, or in the case of RetroPie a computer that behaves like a video game console such as the Super Nintendo. The RetroPie SD image comes pre-installed with many different emulators. Additional emulators may be installed from within RetroPie.

What do you need to build a raspberry pi gaming console.

Installation | How to Build a Raspberry Pi Retro Game Console:

Go to https://retropie.org.uk/download/ and click on Raspberry Pi 2/3 ( if you are using other modes of raspberry pi like 0 or 1 you need to download the image Raspberry Pi 0/1) to download the Retro pie SD image.

The image file is around 700 MB , once you downloaded the image, extract the fie "retropie-4.4-rpi2_rpi3.img.gz" using a program like winzip or 7zip. You will extract the downloaded .gz file and the extracted file will be a .img file.

Before we copy the Retropie image to the SD card , it has to be formatted. Use the software SD Memory Card formatter to do the same.

Download the Card Formatter from https://www.sdcard.org/downloads/formatter_4/index.html & install it on your PC. When you go to the download page , you can select download respective to your PC operating system, & then click on Agree in license agreement.

Go the downloaded folder & run the SDcardformatterXXXsetup.exe . Once the installation is completed you will be able to select the drive from the drop down to the SD Card drive letter. Make sure you are selecting the right drive letter when formatting. Use SD Card reader to insert Micro SD card & connect to the PC. Once you selected the drive letter correctly, click on format. We are ready now to copy Retropie Image in to the SD card.

To install the RetroPie SD image on your MicroSD card you can use a Etcher or Win32DiskImager. We are using Win32DiskImager now.

  • Connect an SD card reader with the SD card inside.
  • Open Win32DiskImager and Select the image file "retropie-4.4-rpi2_rpi3.img"
  • Select Device letter to the respective SD card drive letter. ( D:\ for me, yours will be different)
  • Click on write, Wait and click on Finish once completed.

we are almost done on how to build a raspberry pi retro gaming emulation console, The SD card is ready now with Retropie image. Insert the Micro SD card in to Raspberry pi. Connect the Pi to TV/Monitor using HDMI cable,  Connect the USB Keyboard, mouse. Power on the pi connecting the Power supply.

On first boot your filesystem will be expanded automatically, you will then be welcomed with the following screen- this menu will configure your controls for both Emulationstation and RetroArch Emulators:

Hold down any button on your keyboard or Gamepad and the name will appear at the bottom and then open up into a configuration menu.Follow the onscreen instructions to configure your gamepad or Keyboard.

 

When you first see emulation station, you may not see all systems like gameboy, snes, paystation etc.don't worry a Roms are not installed by default , you need to copy the respective Roms to the SD Card using a USB memory stick.

On RetroPie 4.0+, not everything is installed by default. The pre-made images contain the best working emulators for each system supported by the hardware.

Transferring Roms through USB

  • Format the USB memory stick to FAT32 or NTFS
  • first create a folder called retropie on your USB stick
  • plug it into the pi and wait for it to finish blinking
  • pull the USB out and plug it into a computer
  • add the roms to their respective folders (in the retropie/roms folder)
  • plug it back into the raspberry pi
  • wait for it to finish blinking
  • refresh emulationstation by choosing restart emulationstation from the start menu

After you've added your roms you need to restart emulationstation in order for them to show up. You can restart emulationstation from the start menu, or by rebooting your pi .


Still thinking about How to make a Raspberry Pi Retro Game Console!, Don't be , go head and start the installation. its pretty simple. The kids will love to play the games in Retropie.

Retro gaming reference : https://retropie.org.uk/docs/First-Installation/

Find out the other Amazing uses for raspberry pi | Top 5 uses of raspberry pi. 



In my post Amazing uses for raspberry pi | Top 5 uses of raspberry pi the first use is as Desktop PC. So lets see how to build a raspberry pi computer.

The simplest use for a is as a desktop computer.Depending on which model you buy, the Raspberry Pi is one of the world's least expensive and most versatile computers with just 512MB to 1GB of RAM and an SD card for storage. A good desktop computer can be useful, particularly for work-related tasks, but for many people space is a problem. What better computer to turn to than the box-sized Raspberry Pi.  Connect the pi to your TV through HDMI cable, connect as keyboard, mouse and to a WiFi you have good speed , fast booting computer. You also get applications like LibreOffice which is one of alternatives to Microsoft Office, claws email, chromium browser etc.

Components Required:

  1. ( Recommended 8 GB)
  2. ( it is possible to setup raspberry pi without monitor , for now we will connect the pi to monitor)
  3. HDMI cable
  4. Ethernet Cable ( If don't have wireless)
  5. Keyboard and Mouse

Raspberry Pi 3 model B+, which is the latest Pi available in market & this is having good specifications as listed below

  • Quad Core 1.2GHz Broadcom BCM2837 64bit CPU
  • 1GB RAM
  • BCM43438 wireless LAN and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) on board
  • 100 Base Ethernet
  • 40-pin extended GPIO
  • 4 USB 2 ports
  • 4 Pole stereo output and composite video port
  • Full size HDMI
  • CSI camera port for connecting a Raspberry Pi camera
  • DSI display port for connecting a Raspberry Pi touchscreen display
  • Micro SD port for loading your operating system and storing data
  • Upgraded switched Micro USB power source up to 2.5A
We will see how to make a mini computer with raspberry pi in this tutoria, Install the operating system in the raspberry Pi. Follow the below instructions.

First step is to download NOOBS & have it ready in your PC. How to download raspbian on raspberry pi, follow the below steps.

Go to https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads & you will be able to see multiple version of Operating system listed in the page.

We will be using NOOBS for installation, click on NOOBS. In the next page you will have 2 options NOOBS & NOOBS LITE.

Raspberry pi NOOBS is an easy operating system installer which contains Raspbian and LibreELEC. It also provides a selection of alternative operating systems which are then downloaded from the internet and installed.

NOOBS Lite contains the same operating system installer without Raspbian pre-loaded. It provides the same operating system selection menu allowing Raspbian and other images to be downloaded and installed

Click on download zip for NOOBS & NOOBS LITE. we will use both in this post however to install you don't need to download both. You can download only one of the OS & can follow the procedure respective to it.

Once you downloaded the zip file, Right click & extract to the folder.

NOOBS will have files listed as below in the folder.

For NOOBS Lite

  • Format the SD Card

Before we copy the NOOBS to the SD card , it has to be formatted. Use the software SD Memory Card formatter to do the same. Download the Card Formatter from https://www.sdcard.org/downloads/formatter_4/index.html & install it on your PC. When you go to the download page , you can select download respective to your PC operating system, & then click on Agree in license agreement.

Go the downloaded folder & run the SDcardformatterXXXsetup.exe . Once the installation is completed you will be able to select the drive from the drop down to the SD Card drive letter. Make sure you are selecting the right drive letter when formatting. Use SD Card reader to insert Micro SD card & connect to the PC. Once you selected the drive letter correctly, click on format. We are ready now to copy the NOOBS to the SD card once the formatting is completed & start the OS installation.

  • Copy the NOOBS file to SD Card

Now open the windows explorer copy the files from NOOBS or NOOBS LITE folder & paste the files in to the SD card. Once the files are copied eject the SD Card from PC.

  • Insert the SD card with NOOBS copied in to the Raspberry Pi
  • Connect the  keyboard, Mouse & TV with HDMI cable to the Pi, connect the Pi to the power cable & power on the device. if you don't have wireless connection, connect the Pi to Ethernet cable from your internet modem or router.

Once you power on the Pi, you will be getting the LED light flashing & the screen on the monitor will be displaying booting screen. Since this is the first time you are booting the Pi with SD card, you will be prompted to select the OS to install. Select Raspbian (Recommended) & click on Install button on top , click on yes on the warning message.Wait till the installation is completed.

Once the installation is completed click on OK.

You will be taken in to the next screen where you need to reset the password for Pi, by default all raspberry comes with host name as Pi & password as raspberry. For security reason you need to modify the password which is recommended. Once you have changed the password ( Make sure you note this down some where) , you will be given option to select location, keyboard settings & connect to WiFi. Connect to the WiFi entering the password for your WiFi, Raspberry will look for the updates & will start downloading the updates from internet. This may take some time depending upon your internet speed. Once the download & installation of updates completed, click on reboot prompt & the Raspberry pi will be booted in to the desktop.

We have  installed OS & your PI is ready now.
Can you use raspberry pi as work PC?  We have spend good time to install operating system and bring up the Raspberry pi. Yes we can use the Pi as home PC or as an Work PC. You may need to some tinkering work, however the Pi may not be able to heavy loaded tasks with its configuration.


Internet of Things vs Internet of Everything vs Industrial IoT vs Internet of Vehicles:

In this post we will talk about the definitions and brief about IoT, IoE , IIoT and  IoV . This will give you understanding on what is the difference between IoT and IoE, difference between IoT and IIoT, how IIoT and IoT works.

IoT vs IoE vs IIoT vs IoV

What is IoT? or What is Internet of Things?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

In simple terms we can say IoT is a system of things integrated with sensors, software's, electronics which are connected to each other & can exchange data or Information with other connected devices.

The things can be physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, electronic devices, sensors, actuators, software etc. which can be connected & exchange data.

What is IoE? or What is Internet of Everything?

The Internet of Everything (IoE) is a concept that extends the Internet of Things (IoT) .Internet of Things (IoT) emphasis on machine-to-machine (M2M) communications where as Internet of everything describe a more complex system that also encompasses people and processes,the intelligent connection of people, process, data and things.The concept of the Internet of Everything originated at Cisco.The Internet of Everything (IoE) is a concept that aims to look at the bigger picture.

Refer the cisco papers on IoE: https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/global/en_my/assets/ciscoinnovate/pdfs/IoE.pdf

What is IIoT? or What is Industrial Internet of Things?

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) refers to the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies in manufacturing and related industries like agriculture, gas and oil, utilities, and transportation to create smart, self-regulating systems.The Industrial Internet of Things is opening up a new era of economic growth and competitiveness, this will transform companies and countries. We are looking at a future where the intersection of people, data and intelligent machines will have high reaching impacts on the productivity, efficiency and operations of industries around the world.

The basic idea is to give the machines the main power in our economy to make it “smarter” by gathering and analyzing data, often in real-time, and taking appropriate actions on the go.These machines can also identify when they need maintenance and perform self-maintenance. This has the effect of preventing breakdowns and reduce the downtime, increasing the overall production capacity and throughput.

Benefits of IIOT:

  • Increased Efficiency: Capturing of more data about their processes and products through the use of technologies such as sensors and the data collected will provide valuable information to transform business practices or make real-time decisions.
  • Increased Revenue: IIOT opens up new models of business and brings new sources of revenue. The IIoT can help to monetize additional services on top of existing products.
  • Change in Business Models: The IIoT allows automation of some processes that can improve time-to-market, measure performance and rapidly respond to customer needs.New services and products are emerging & enabling new approaches create great value for customers.
  • Reduce Risk Management and Safety Compliance : IIoT can help reduce risk and monitor safety protocol adherence by identifying the areas where Machines can learn to monitor and audit compliance procedures, flagging irregularities and issues much more quickly than humans can.

What is IoV? or What is Internet of Vehicles?

As the vehicles are increasingly being connected to the Internet of things (IoT), they form the Internet of vehicles (IoV).The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is an integration of three networks: an inter-vehicle network, an intra-vehicle network, and vehicular mobile Internet.Thus, IoV is the convergence of the mobile Internet and IoT. It is an emerging field for the automotive industry and an important part of the smart cities.

Now you should be able to understand between IIoT vs IoT and IoE vs IoT.



As we are using raspberry pi for most of our IoT Projects, I did thought that is Raspberry Pi only used for IoT projects, are there any other ways we can use the devices. Definitely yes is the answer and I have already started using Raspberry pi for lot of other things.Looking at the device, you know you can use it for so many project but you’re not sure how to do it. Let met list down some of the top uses of raspberry pi 3. I believe you will be using raspberry pi 3 or other modes like raspberry pi zero , Arduino , Esp8266 node mcu etc for your projects.

Computer/PC

The simplest use for a Raspberry Pi is as a desktop computer.Depending on which model you buy, the Raspberry Pi is one of the world's least expensive and most versatile computers with just 512MB to 1GB of RAM and an SD card for storage. A good desktop computer can be useful, particularly for work-related tasks, but for many people space is a problem. What better computer to turn to than the box-sized Raspberry Pi.  Connect the pi to your TV through HDMI cable, connect as keyboard, mouse and to a WiFi you have good speed , fast booting computer. You also get applications like LibreOffice which is one of alternatives to Microsoft Office, claws email, chromium browser etc.

You need to install Raspbian or different OS to setup your raspberry pi.

Refer the tutorial raspberry pi as desktop pc/can you use raspberry pi as a desktop.

Raspberry Pi home screen

Media Center

We will learn how to set up Raspberry Pi as entertainment center solution (Kodi was XBMC) with the right accessories and software. Kodi is a free and open-source media player software application developed by the XBMC Foundation, a non-profit technology consortium. Kodi is available for multiple operating systems and hardware platforms, with a software 10-foot user interface for use with televisions and remote controls.

Turn a Raspberry Pi Into an Media Center in under 30 Minutes.Raspberry Pi is the perfect choice for a best home theater PC which are small, quiet, and inexpensive.Before you even hook up your Raspberry Pi to your TV,you’ll need to get the Kodi installed on normal Raspbian OS or you can use separate OS OpenELEC, or LibreELEC which is specifically designed for media center purpose. I will write a separate tutorial on how to setup the operating system for media center and configure the same.

Kodi

Gaming Machine

You can convert your raspberry pi in to a gaming system, do you believe it ? You should.

Welcome to RetroPie. RetroPie allows you to turn your Raspberry Piinto a retro-gaming machine. It builds upon Raspbian, EmulationStation, RetroArch and many other projects to enable you to play your favorite Arcade, home-console, and classic PC games with the minimum set-up. For power users it also provides a large variety of configuration tools to customize the system as you want.

An emulator is software that makes a computer behave like another computer, or in the case of RetroPie a computer that behaves like a video game console such as the Super Nintendo. The RetroPie SD image comes pre-installed with many different emulators. Additional emulators may be installed from within RetroPie

RetroPie

Refer the tutorial on how to build a raspberry pi retro gaming emulation console/how to setup Retropie in raspberry Pi.

Web server

Apache is a popular web server application you can install on the Raspberry Pi to allow it to serve web pages.On its own, Apache can serve HTML files over HTTP, and with additional modules can serve dynamic web pages using scripting languages such as PHP.

You can setup your own website in Raspberry pi using apache webserver, php and WordPress. You can use no-ip and no need to worry about changing public ip.

Install apache using simple commands.

sudo apt-get update

Then, install the apache2 package with this command:

sudo apt-get install apache2 -y

This article will give you how to install webserver: https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/remote-access/web-server/apache.md

In future posts , I will share the tutorial how setup wordpress in Raspberry pi.

Security system

Home security system using raspberry pi, we can build using a PIR Sensor and PI Camera.This system will detect the presence of Intruder and quickly alert the user by sending him a alert mail. This mail will also contain the Picture of the Intruder, captured by Pi camera. Raspberry Pi is used to control the whole system.

Components Required:

  • Raspberry Pi
  • Pi Camera
  • PIR Sensor
  • Bread Board
  • Resistor (1k)
  • Connecting wires
  • Power supply

Refer the tutorial on simple Home Security email alert using Raspberry Pi .

Organizational Structure:

In an organization constraints are imposed to the projects through organizational structures and governance frameworks. The governance frame work is consisting of rules, policies, procedures, norms, processes etc.  The general management elements are included in governance framework and depending upon the organizational structure is selected. The performance of the project or organization depends upon the selection of appropriate types of organization in management. Determination of appropriate organizational structure type require a detailed study and trade off between different parameters. There is no one specific organizational structure fitting for the all projects, you will have to adapt and select the right structure for your project needs or as per your organizational framework.

Organizational structure types:

Each companies considers different /numerous factors in selecting the organizational structure, some of the factors are "alignment to organizational objectives", "competency and specialization", "control & authority" , "accountability & responsibility", "cost", "location", "communication and efficiency".

The main types of organizational structure are:

  • Functional organizational structure
  • Matrix organizational structure
  • Projectized organizational structure or Project oriented organizational structure

Matrix organizational structure can be further divided in to 3 types of organizational structure.

  • Weak matrix organization
  • Balanced matrix organization
  • Strong matrix organization

The classification is mainly depending upon the project managers authority, the role of project manager and budget, resource control in the project.

Main types of organizational structure

 

Organizational structure Project manager’s authority Resource availability PM’s role Budget control
Functional None or very little Little Part time or may not be available Functional manager
Weak matrix Low Low Part time Functional manager
Balanced Matrix Low to moderate Low to moderate Part time Mixed
Strong Matrix Moderate to High Moderate to High Full time designated Project Manager
Projectized or Project oriented High or Total Total Full time designated Project Manager

 

Functional vs Matrix vs Projectized

 

A functional organization structure is a hierarchical organization structure wherein people are grouped as per their area of specialization,the reporting relationships are grouped based on the specialty or functional area. Separate areas are established to take care of different concerns.A functional organization is the most common type of organizational structure. This is where the organization is divided into smaller groups based on its special functions such as IT, finance or marketing.

Functional organizational structure advantages and disadvantages:

Advantages: 

  • Clearly defined career path
  • Greater specialization and skill development
  • More flexible work force
  • Only one manager and no conflict

Disadvantages:

  • Department work gets higher priority than project work
  • No career path for PM

A matrix organizational structure is a company structure in which the reporting relationships are set up as a grid, or matrix, rather than in the traditional hierarchy. This is a combination of functional and project oriented organizational structure, employees have dual reporting relationships - generally to both a functional manager and a project manager.

Matrix organizational structure advantages and disadvantages:

Advantages: 

  • Better Coordination
  • Maximum utilization of resources

Disadvantages:

  • Higher potential for conflict
  • Greater communication complexity and overhead

A project organizational structure refers specifically to an organizational structure that has been set up in a manner in which the project manager leads the group and in which the project manager has the ultimate authority to make any and all decisions involving the organization.The structure facilitates the coordination and implementation of project activities. Its main reason is to create an environment that fosters interactions among the team members with a minimum amount of disruptions, overlaps and conflict.

Projectized organizational structure advantages and disadvantages:

Advantages: 

  • Better Communication with in project
  • More loyal to the project goals

Disadvantages:

  • Less efficient use of resources
  • No home once the project is completed
  • Limited skill development


I have created this post to share Sample PMP questions and answers.

The PMP, or Project Management Professional, is an exam conducted by the Project Management Institute (PMI), is a globally recognized certification. The exam consists of 200 multiple choice questions that outline the five process groups (Initiation, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing).

10 PMP Sample Questions and Answers

Below are 10 examples of PMP questions and answers. If. you are considering working toward your PMP exam go through these PMP questions and also refer Sample PMP questions  Aug 2018 .

PMP exam dumps free download from here.

1. Which of the following is NOT true of obtaining project plan approval?

A. Until you obtain plan approval, you don’t need to put changes to it through change control
B. Change control makes sure that only approved changes can make it into the approved plan
C. Only one person needs to approve the Project Management Plan and that’s the Project Manager
D. It’s important for the entire team to buy into the Project Management Plan for it to be successful

Answer is C:

It’s not enough that the Project Manager approves of the Project Management Plan; it needs to be approved by all of the stakeholders in the project.

2. Which of the following shows roles and responsibilities on your project?

A. Bar chart
B. Resource histogram
C. RACI matrix
C. Human Resource Management Plan

Answer is C :

The RACI matrix shows roles and responsibilities on your project. RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed

3. Adam is a project manager on a software development project. About halfway through development, his team found that they had not estimated enough time for some of the technical work they needed to do. He requested that the new work be added to the scope statement and that the time to do the work be added to the schedule. The change control board approved his change. What’s his next step?

A. Update the scope and schedule baselines to reflect the approved change
B. Start doing the work
C. Gather performance metrics on the team’s work so far
D. Perform Quality Assurance

Answer is A:

When a change has been approved you always need to update the baseline and then implement the change

4. Which of the following is NOT a source of information about specific project constraints and assumptions?

A. The project scope management plan
B. Requirements documentation
C. The project scope statement
D. The scope baseline

Answer is A :

The project scope management plan tells you exactly how you’ll create the project scope, define the WBS, verify that the work has been done, and make changes to the scope. But it doesn’t tell you about specific assumptions that you and the team have made, or constraints on your project.

5. When do you perform stakeholder analysis?

A. When managing communications on your project
B. When developing the project charter
C. When creating the project management plan
D. When putting changes through change control

Answer is A:

Stakeholder Analysis is one of the tools and techniques of the Identify Stakeholders process. Identify Stakeholders is one of the processes in the Communications Management knowledge area.

6. Which is the BEST definition of quality?

A. A product made of very expensive materials
B. A product made with a lot of care by the team who built it
C. A product that satisfies the requirements of the people who pay for it
D. A product that passes all of its tests

Answer is C:

Quality management is all about making sure that the product you are building conforms to your customer’s requirements.

7. When are the most expensive defects most likely to be introduced into a product?

A. When the product is being assembled
B. When the product is being designed
C. When the quality management plan is being written
D. When the product is being reviewed by the customers

Answer is B:

The most expensive defects are the ones introduced when the product is being designed.This really makes sense once you think about how projects are run. If your team introduces a defect into a product while it’s being designed, then they have to go back and fix it it completely if they developed a product with defective design.

8. In which plan do you define the processes that will be used to keep people informed throughout the project?

A. Staffing Management Plan
B. Project Management Plan
C. Schedule Management Plan
D. Communications Management Plan

Answer is D:

The Communications Management Plan defines all of the processes that will be used for communication on the project.

9. Which enterprise environmental factor defines how work is assigned to people?

A. RACI matrix
B. Project Management Information System (PMIS)
C. Resource histogram
D. Work authorization system

Answer is D:

The work authorization system is a part of your company’s Enterprise Environmental Factors, It defines how work is assigned to people.

10. Which of the following is not a tool or technique of the Perform Quality Control process?

A. Inspection
B. Quality audits
C. Pareto charts
D. Statistical sampling

Answer is B:

Quality audits are reviews done on your project to make sure that you are following all of the processes in your company correctly. They are a tool of the Perform Quality Assurance process.


In This tutorial we will see how to build home security system with email notification. In my previous posts we have seen other IoT Projects with raspberry Pi and how to use Cayenne to create triggers. Here we will be using Python script to generate email when detecting any trespassers movement. We can call this a IoT project as simple Raspberry Pi based Intruder Alert System (home security system with email using raspberry pi, sending email using  raspberry pi and pir sensor).

The components needed:

1. Raspberry Pi
2. PIR Motion Sensor
3. Connecting wires
4. Power supply for Pi

We will be building this home security system using PIR Motion sensor. PIR sensor will detect the motion (presence of intruder) and will alert you immediately by sending an email.You can install the sensor in front of your door , or any other place and you will be notified about the intruder even if you are any where in the world.

Connection:

First you need to Set up the Raspberry Pi 3 for the project. For setting up the raspberry pi with operating system follow my tutorial. Download the image and install it on the SD card, Connect to WIFI or ethernet cable.

PIR sensor has 3 pins, labelled VCC, OUT and GND. We will be using Raspberry PI pins 4 (5V) , 6 (GND) and 7 (GPIO4).Lets connect the PIR sensor to the Raspberry Pi, use Female to Female Jumper wires or you can use Breadboard in between the connections.Connect the PIN labelled as VCC on the PIR sensor to the 5V pin on the Raspberry Pi, connect the middle one labelled OUT to Pin GPIO4, and connect the Pin labelled as GND to a ground pin 6.

 

PIR Sensor + Email. Now its time to write the python code, to detect the motion and send email.

Open Python Idle and copy the below code in to it. Change the "from_email" , "from_email_password" and "to_email" to your respective emails and password.  We are using gmail here so you should use Gmail email address, otherwise it wont work. If you are using any other email address change the SMTP and port for the respective email configuration. I have written the same program in 2 different ways, both gives the same output. See the below.

IoT based home security system using raspberry pi

Program 1:

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import time

PIRSensor = 4

GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
GPIO.setup(PIRSensor, GPIO.IN, GPIO.PUD_DOWN)

previous_state = False
current_state = False

while True:
        time.sleep(1)
        previous_state = current_state
        current_state = GPIO.input(PIRSensor)
        if current_state != previous_state:
              new_state = "HIGH" if current_state else "LOW"
              print("GPIO pin %s is %s" % (PIRSensor, new_state))
              import smtplib

              server = smtplib.SMTP('smtp.gmail.com', 587)
              server.starttls()
              server.login("from_email", "from_email_password")

             msg = "Security Alert! INTRUDER!"
             server.sendmail("from_email_address", "to_email_address", msg)
             server.quit()

Program 2: 

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import time
import smtplib

PIRSensor = 4

GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
GPIO.setup(PIRSensor, GPIO.IN, GPIO.PUD_DOWN)

Current_State = 0
Previous_State = 0

try:

      print "Waiting for PIR to settle ..."

      # Loop until PIR output is 0
      while GPIO.input(PIRSensor)==1:
              Current_State = 0

       print " Ready"

       # Loop until users quits with CTRL-C
       while True :

                # Read PIR state
                Current_State = GPIO.input(PIRSensor)

                if Current_State==1 and Previous_State==0:
                        # PIR is triggered
                        print " Intruder Alert!, Motion detected!"
                       #Send mail
                        server = smtplib.SMTP('smtp.gmail.com', 587)
                        server.starttls()
                        server.login("from_email_address", "from_email_password")
                        msg = "Security Alert! INTRUDER!"
                        server.sendmail("from_email_address", "to_email_address", msg)
                        server.quit()
                       # Record previous state
                        Previous_State=1
                elif Current_State==0 and Previous_State==1:
                       # PIR has returned to ready state
                       print " Ready"
                       Previous_State=0

                      # Wait for 10 milliseconds
                      time.sleep(0.05)

except KeyboardInterrupt:
print " Quit"

# Reset GPIO settings
GPIO.cleanup()

One of the common question will arise is normally we use GPIO.IN or GPIO.OUT in GPIO.Setup and Why to use GPIO.PUD_DOWN in GPIO.setup(sensor, GPIO.IN, GPIO.PUD_DOWN) not just GPIO.setup(sensor, GPIO.IN)?

An input gpio will float between 0 and 1 if it's not connected to a voltage.The pull-up/downs supply that voltage so that the gpio will have a defined value UNTIL overridden by a stronger force. You should set a pull-down (to 0) when you expect the stronger force to pull it up to 1 or you should set a pull-up (to 1) when you expect the stronger force to pull it down to 0. Otherwise the gpio will not change state and you'll never know about the external event.


In upcoming projects we can extend this home security system to integrate along with Raspberry Pi Camera to detect the intruder and capture the Image along with the email. We could also build live feed from the Camera to make it more impressive security system.

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There are a lot of IoT platforms out there, Refer my Post on IoT Platform Companies to get the list of top IoT platforms and best IoT platform open source or free IoT platform and their key features. Depending upon what features or functionalities your are looking for, you will have to decide which is suitable for your needs. In most of home automation's and learning for IoT free IoT platforms are we always looks for. That is why I thought I will share my knowledge on few of the top free IoT platform list available to do your IoT projects.

We will be discussing specifically on three free IoT platform open source, their key features and Comparisons. In this post we will be specifically talking about Blynk, Cayenne and Thingsboard top IoT tools which are easily available with out cost. There are lot of others tools which are also available as open source home automation IoT tools.

Blynk Vs Cayenne Vs Thingsboard

Blynk:

Blynk is a Platform with iOS and Android apps to control Arduino, Raspberry Pi and the likes over the Internet.

It's a digital dashboard where you can build a graphic interface for your project by simply dragging and dropping widgets.

It's really simple to set everything up and you'll start tinkering in less than 5 mins.

Blynk  is not tied to some specific board or shield. Instead, it's supporting hardware of your choice. Whether your Arduino or Raspberry Pi  is linked to the Internet over Wi-Fi, Ethernet or this new ESP8266 chip, Blynk will get you online and ready for the Internet Of Your Things.

You can download Blynk app from below links

Free Blynk app from IOS App store and Play Store.

How Blynk Works: 

Blynk was designed for the Internet of Things. It can control hardware remotely, it can display sensor data, it can store data, vizualize it and do many other cool things.

There are three major components in the platform:

  • Blynk App - allows to you create amazing interfaces for your projects using various widgets we provide.
  • Blynk Server - responsible for all the communications between the smartphone and hardware. You can use our Blynk Cloud or run your private Blynk server locally. It’s open-source, could easily handle thousands of devices and can even be launched on a Raspberry Pi.
  • Blynk Libraries - for all the popular hardware platforms - enable communication with the server and process all the incoming and outcoming commands. Click here to download Blynk libraries.

Blynk App

Now imagine every time you press a Button in the Blynk app, the message travels to the Blynk Cloud, where it magically finds its way to your hardware. It works the same in the opposite direction and everything happens in a blynk of an eye. Refer the documentation on Blynk for more details.

The document Getting Started With The Blynk App which gives the complete details on how to create a blynk account, create a new project in blynk app, Choose your hardware, Unique identifier Auth token for your hardware which is needed to connect to the device, how to add widgets and run the projects. You need to add the blynk libraries in to your computer and configure the auth token in to the program.

My devices Cayenne: 

When we hear cayenne first things comes is Porsche Cayenne or Cayenne Pepper for those are food crazy :). That is not what talking here, we are talking about MyDevices Cayenne who claims that they are the first drag and drop IoT Project builder. Design prototypes and complete IoT solutions with my device Cayenne app in any device or connection.

Main features of Cayenne:

  1. Triggers
  2. Data Visualization
  3. Remote Monitoring
  4. SMS & Email Alerts
  5. IoT Cloud
  6. Asset Tracking

Cayenne IoT ready program for hardware manufacturers will easily enable micro controllers , gateways, sensors and other devices to connect to Internet of Things. Refer my tutorial on simple iot drag and drop app builder cayenne app to know about the detail process on how to sign up in Cayenne and configure for your IoT projects.

Cayenne dashboard

 

Cayenne Vs Blynk: 

Before we talk about Cayenne projects and Blynk projects let me list down some of my findings on Pro's and Con's on Cayenne IoT and Blynk.

  1. Blynk is more complicated and suitable for those who want to write code for functions where as Cayenne is simple to use and no need to programming or write codes.
  2. User interface is small in Blynk and difficult some times, where as Cayenne have a good user interface and easily configurable.
  3. Cayenne provides a very easy triggers / rules engine where as Blynk does not provide a simple way to create triggers
  4. Cayenne provides scheduling where as Blynk doesnt have easy way to do it.
  5. Cayenne is more suitable for beginners where as Blynk can be extensively used for high  end IoT projects using writing your own code.

Thingsboard:

ThingsBoard is an open-source IoT platform for data collection, processing, visualization, and device management. ThingsBoard is an open-source IoT platform that enables rapid development, management and scaling of IoT projects. The goal is to provide the out-of-the-box IoT cloud or on-premises solution that will enable server-side infrastructure for your IoT applications.

It enables device connectivity via industry standard IoT protocols - MQTT, CoAP and HTTP and supports both cloud and on-premises deployments. ThingsBoard combines scalability, fault-tolerance and performance so you will never lose your data.

Features:

  • Provision devices, assets and customers and define relations between them.
  • Collect and visualize data from devices and assets.
  • Analyze incoming telemetry and trigger alarms with complex event processing.
  • Control your devices using remote procedure calls (RPC).
  • Build work-flows based on device life-cycle event, REST API event, RPC request, etc
  • Design dynamic and responsive dashboards and present device or asset telemetry and insights to your customers
  • Enable use-case specific features using customizable rule chains.
  • Push device data to other systems

Refer the documentation to get the complete details about Thingsboard. We will be using Thingsboard community edition for our IoT Projects.


CONGRATULATIONS! You are living in a very exciting era. You are now witnessing the rise and convergence of technologies that will each transform the world.Internet of Things is a floating word in across all enterprise today & everybody is talking about it. The pace how IoT is getting in to the market is so high, we are going to have a huge number of connected devices in 2020. All the major companies are focusing on connecting their devices or setting up ready with the ability to connect in future.According to Bosch CEO Volkmar Denner, every product BOSCH ships will be capable of connecting to a network by 2020. We are seeing Alexa talking with customers, Home automation, Human health tracking & other devices, and even in retail, industrial sectors.There is no doubt with knowledge or with out every one is going to use one or other connected devices. This means the data flow & collected by the resources are going to increase exponentially. Data is the key for the business & or we call it as the business itself. It all depends upon how the enterprise is using the data.

Source: Pixabay

Artificial Intelligence the Key to Unlock IoT Potential:

The era of normal connected IoT devices are going to change, we are seeing the involvement of AI & Machine learning with IoT now. This is going to change the entire world how it is running now & this is going to be a key factor in future. We are talking about autonomous driving cars, Speech recognition & Computer Vision. Think about a world as we see in movies where robots are talking to each other, Cars are driving automatically, Fridge is talking to Television, You can enter to an virtual reality to do all your needs. Its sounds exiting as an adventure , at the same time we are seeing a great risk & catastrophic if something goes wrong.Just like i Robot :).

Adoption of best IoT security Practices:

This will be the key turning point or deciding factor on how our world is going to run in future. There should be defined standards for all IoT enabled products & have to undergo strict security testing which will ensure that data is safe & at the same time we don’t end up like a Judgement day in Terminator. Cyber attacks is increasing , the major concerns from consumer is regarding security of IoT devices. We have to look from bother software & physical side of security. At the same time the device can be hacked through software, all the devices are vulnerable physically also. We are expecting the industry to respond , considering this as the priority and deploy the latest security technologies and adopt security best practices. We can see already few of the government security agencies & organization are collaboratively working on these.

Blockchain IoT :

IoT and Blockchain are the two world changing technologies trending in this era and in the beginning of their adoption curve. We are looking forward to see enormous futuristic opportunities when these two technologies merge together.

what is blockchain : Blockchain  is  an encrypted, distributed computer filing system , it is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography. Block chain certainly is real however may not be completely ready in 2018 for adoption in every industry. Blockchain is going to be technology that will make a real impact across industry sectors along with IoT. Blockchain is the invention from brain of a single person or a group of person know by pseudonym, Satoshi Nakamoto. Digital currency , Bitcoin is first majority used purpose however now industry is finding the potential use of it as technology. Blockchain is getting used in Cybersecurity, healthcare, financial sectors etc. for securing health records, control disease, patient data, cryptocurrency wallets.

According to research and analysis firm Gartner, there were around 8 billion connected devices in use at the end of 2017. That’s a 31% increase from the year before, and it’s not slowing down. It’s estimated that there will be upwards of 20 billion connected devices by the end of 2020.The physical world is going to be extremely interconnected and smart.

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The Project Management Professional (PMP) is a globally acknowledged professional certification that validates the experience and knowledge of a Project Manager in project management.This certification is offered by PMI( Project Management Institute) for qualified professionals to attend the exam. In this post we will be discussing about the benefits of PMP Certification and top reasons to get PMP certification.

What is PMP certification?

PMI (Project Management Institute)  is the leader and the most widely recognized organization in terms of promoting project management best practices.

PMI was founded in 1969 and first PMP certification exam in 1984. PMI is accredited as an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and also the first organization to have its certification program attain International Organization for Standardization recognition (ISO 9001).

As of March 2018, there are 833,025 active PMP certified individuals and 286 chartered chapters across 210 countries and territories worldwide.The exam is based on the PMI Project Management Body of Knowledge.The PMP signifies that you speak and understand the global language of project management and connects you to a community of professionals, organizations and experts worldwide. Become a PMP and become a project hero. Local PMI chapters meet regularly and allow project managers to exchange information and learn new tools and techniques of project management. The first step in your path for PMP certification, I would recommend you to register in PMI and become and member of Chapter.

Why Become PMP Certified?

There are several benefits  associated with coming PMP certified,  here are the top reasons for certifications.

  1. Globally acknowledged
  2. Demonstrates proof of Professional achievement
  3. Increase your market value
  4. Provides greater opportunity for advancement
  5. Increased customer confidence in Project

Globally acknowledged:

The Project Management Professional (PMP) is a globally acknowledged professional certification that validates the experience and knowledge of a Project Manager in project management. PRINCE2 could be seen as a competitor of Project Management Professional (PMP). In general, the USA and American countries prefer PMP, and UK, Australia and Europe prefer PRINCE2. Asia, Africa and the Middle East area have no strong preference for PMP or PRINCE2.
PRINCE2 and PMP acknowledge each other's existence in their advertising material and attempt to position themselves as complementary products – PRINCE2 as a "methodology"and PMP as a "standard" which can be used alongside each other. In practice, companies and practitioners choose one system or both due to the project environment, their geographical location and costs involved. Refer the post PMP vs PRINCE 2 to understand the framework, Certification prerequisites . Also refer the link pmp training project management certification to know the step by step procedure to apply for PMP certification and submit the application.

Demonstrates proof of Professional achievement:

Its a agreeable fact that PMP certification exam is difficult , the difficulty is because the exam tests not only the memory of the concepts but the practical application of Project management skills, tools , techniques. You need to answer 200 questions in 240 minutes. PMP certification documents your achievement in the field of project management. The exam test your knowledge of approaches , methodology and project management practices described in PMBOK guide.

PMP certification prerequisites, to qualify for the exam  you must have either

  1. Secondary degree (high school diploma, associate's degree or the global equivalent.
  2. 7,500 hours leading and directing projects
  3. 35 hours of project management education

OR

  1. Four-year degree
  2. 4,500 hours leading and directing projects
  3. 35 hours of project management education

The certification gives the attestation to your employers and customers that you are well grounded in project management practices and disciplines. It shows you have hands on experience and you can manage projects effectively, motivate the team to achieve the project goals and deliverable's.

Increase your market value:

PMP Certification opens up better career avenues and provides professionals with greater job opportunities in the project management world. According to a survey's, 80% of high-performing projects use PMP certified project managers. PMBOK certification teaches you important skills to excel in your career. Most of the industries has realized the importance of project management and its role in the organization.

The certification will always make you stand out above the competition. If you are certified in PMP and competing with other project managers with out certification , you will come out as the pick. You should know that PMP holders typically enjoy a dramatic and steep hike in salary once they have attained the PMP certification. On average, PMP certified professionals earn 17% more than their non-certified counterparts.

Provides greater opportunity for advancement:

PMP certification displays your willingness to pursue growth in your professional career, potential employers will recognize your certification as mark of your commitment , high energy, success driven, can do attitude.It shows your dedication to your own professional growth and enhancement , to advance in professional standards.

Increased customer confidence in Project:

Just as PMP certification gives your credibility to the employers, assures the customers that you have background and experience to handle the projects. it assures the customers that they have a competent experience project manager who can manage the project successfully to deliver the project goals. This enhances the trust between you and customer, which in turn will give you ability to influence them for important project issues.

Conclusion:

In summary, PMP certification may be considered as expensive, time-consuming and difficult. But, organization, employers, customers treat PMP certification as an important credential that adds credibility of a project manager and proof of hands on experience and you can manage projects effectively. Further, it helps you build essential skills required to excel in your career.

So definitely PMP certification is worth the effort.


When I started my IoT projects , one of the challenge was to build a IoT platform or use an existing IoT platform which can be used to monitor, control, manage your sensors & devices. Even though there are enterprise IoT platforms available, I have found mydevices Cayenne or Cayenne powered by myDevices is one of the best open source tools which gives very good features to run IoT projects.

"MyDevices" Cayenne is the world’s first drag and drop IoT project builder that empowers developers, designers and engineers to quickly prototype and share their connected device projects. Cayenne was designed to help users create Internet of Things prototypes and then bring them to production. Cayenne app is available in both mobile platform Android, IOS and also you can access Cayenne through web browser.

Lets start our work to setup Cayenne for Raspberry Pi . In this article we will cover how you install Cayenne to Raspberry to connect through Mobile app & Web browser to have it ready to control an LED & other sensors.

MyDevices Cayenne is an open source IoT Platform which is used as IoT Project builder that allows you to control Raspberry Pi & other sensors, relays, actuators connected to your Pi through graphical interface.

Main features of Cayenne:

Widget: A variety of widget are available & parameters can be customized by the user.Add remotely controlled sensors, actuators, relay,GPIO Pins etc.

Customizable dashboard & Visualization : Cayenne stores historical data that enables you to see meaningful patterns of behavior to help understand and guide improvements on your IoT projects and the devices and sensors connected & is easily customizable.

Drag-and-drop widgets: Cayenne uses widgets to visualize devices, their data, status and actions. Every device, sensor and actuator that gets added in Cayenne has one or more widgets associated depending on the hardware capabilities. Widgets are added to the Device list on the left hand side and to each device’s Dashboard.

Triggers: Create tiggers with threshold that can send email alerts.

Easy setup: Cayenne is easily integrated with Pi & installation is simple.

Sign Up to Cayenne:

To install Cayenne what you need is a or ( We will be focusing on Raspberry Pi in this article), Pi should be installed with Rasbian or NOOBS Operating system. If you not have done that yet, kindly refer the article how to install noobs on raspberry pi 3. The Raspberry Pi should be connected to Internet through Ethernet cable or through WiFi.With Cayenne I have to admit that DIY (Do it yourself) raspberry pi projects home automation complexity is simplified.

First create an account in mydevices.com. Go https://mydevices.com/ and click on Sign Up Free, Enter the First, Last name , Email address & password, agree the terms and click on get started free. you can also sign up through Mobile app. Go to play store and install Cayenne App ( App Store or Playstore), signup through the Cayenne app.

Cayenne Sign up page

Register for Cayenne mydevices

Install Cayenne through commands or Mobile app:

Once you login to Cayenne , you will not see any devices because we have not connected our raspberry Pi to the Cayenne dashboard. The easiest way to do this is through Mobile app.

Cayenne Google Playstore App

Once you login to the Mobile application, go to my devices  & click on the Plus icon on the top right corner -> Add device  .This will list you the devices which can be connect & select Raspberry Pi. Since our Raspberry Pi is already connected to WiFi, click on Search for devices.

 

Our cayenne raspberry pi is listed and click on it which will prompt you to enter Pi username & password . By default it is pi & raspberry however for security we have already changed this when we setup our Raspberry Pi with NOOBS. Enter the same and click on done.

Pi user name & password

Now you can select the Pi & click on Setup , which will start the installation & will take 5 to 10 min to complete the installation. The Raspberry will be rebooted & Cayenne dashboard will be available with basic information of the devices like CPU usage, memory usage etc.

Cayenne Installation

Cayenne dashboard

 

Manual installation method on Raspberry Pi: 

To install directly from Rasberry Pi, Connect to you Pi through SSH or open Terminal from Pi, enter the below commands.

wget https://cayenne.mydevices.com/dl/rpi_fqljxbqthj.sh

sudo bash rpi_fqljxbqthj.sh -v

This will take some time, Pi will be rebooted. You can login to the web brower and see the Cayenne dashboard.

Cayenne Dashboard & configuration:

We are now ready with Cayenne dashboard  and ready for cayenne iot project build. However before we proceed, let us see what are the features available and how we can add our sensors & create tiggers in Cayenne IoT.

Widgets:  go to add devices & select the respective device you want to add. We are going to add a Relay module, so go to actuators & select Relay.

Add widgets in Cayenne

In the next screen select the Raspberry Pi ( if you have more than one Raspberry Pi configured in Cayenne select the right device in which you are using the Relay) , Connectivity to Integrated GPIO, Channel should be selected to the right Pin number to which you are connecting the device and choose what type of button to control the action. Click on add actuator and you are done. its as simple as that, you can add in the similar way other devices as required.

Relay configuration

Now if you have all physical devices also configured to the pins defined in Cayenne, when you toggle the switch in Cayenne dashboard the Relay will switch On and Off accordingly.

Configure Trigger:

We can also setup triggers in Cayenne which have two section If an then part. If decide the condition on which what action to need to be that is defined in then part:

Cayenne triggerGo to add new and select Trigger, give a specific name for the trigger. Drag the Raspberry Pi device to the If box and select the sensor , actuators which is configured on which you need to create the trigger. In this case we selected Relay . Next part is then, we have options to setup notifications or setup webhook. Click on Setup notification and you have options to send text message, send email . This is really a great feature in Cayenne and really useful.

I hope you all had a good understanding on Cayenne & how to setup for our cayenne raspberry pi projects. One of the question asked to me is that Cayenne is not free and what is cayenne mydevices pricing? . I would like to re-itrate that Cayenne is free for signup and I am not paying a penny at this point, I am not sure if they will change it in future. One of the words I saw from the post in http://linuxgizmos.com/free-iot-development-and-management-platform-adds-arduino/ is “As for pricing, the product will always be free to makers but we will be rolling out an Enterprise solution with pricing to be announced at that time,” wrote Bromber in an email. We see you in next posts on setting up projects using Cayenne devices.

IoT the term refers to the connection of devices (the Things) through the internet so they can collect and share data without human assistance.

The adoption of IoT within the industry has opened up unlimitted possibilities and are rapidly redefining all areas of business operations. Pioneering companies are connecting complex physical machinery with data analytics, bringing unforeseen insights, increasing efficiency and opening up a new era of competitiveness and growth.

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system.

First industrial revolution was the transition to new manufacturing process in the period of 1760 to 1840. This is the transition from hand production methods to machines.Important developments are textile industry powered by steam, efficiency of steam engine is increased & used in rotary motions ,Iron making.This is characterized by the dominance of the textile industry and the use of coal. The symbols are the steam engine and train.

The 2nd industrial revolution is marked by a wide range of sectors entirely new as the chemical industry, mechanical engineering. If the energy in the 1st industrial revolution was coal in the 2nd industrial revolution were the oil and electricity.The results of science flow in areas especially in the chemical industry that made great changes in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The symbol of the 2nd industrial revolution is steel.

The 3rd industrial revolution in the 20th century has changed Manufacturing a lot. New technologies, such as the Internet, and the renewable energies changed the history.Products are produced in a new way, using computers and new machines

Industry 4.0 or fourth industrial revolution is inspired by German government's initiative to promote connected manufacturing industry , business & other related process. The vision of I4.0 is is for smart factory & make use of digital transformation.The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is driving the fourth wave of the industrial revolution.

The four design principles in Industry 4.0 are below & these principles support companies in implementing smart factory industry 4.0:

  • Interoperability : The ability of machines, devices, sensors, and people to connect and communicate with each other via the Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Information transparency: Aggregation of raw sensor data to higher-value context information
  • Technical assistance: The ability of assistance systems to solve urgent problems on short notice by aggregating and visualizing information comprehensively.
  • Decentralized decisions:The ability of cyber physical systems to make decisions on their own and to perform their tasks as autonomously as possible..

IIoT definition:

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) refers to the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies in manufacturing and related industries like agriculture, gas and oil, utilities, and transportation to create smart, self-regulating systems.The Industrial Internet of Things is opening up a new era of economic growth and competitiveness, this will transform companies and countries. We are looking at a future where the intersection of people, data and intelligent machines will have high reaching impacts on the productivity, efficiency and operations of industries around the world.

The basic idea is to give the machines the main power in our economy to make it “smarter” by gathering and analyzing data, often in real-time, and taking appropriate actions on the go.These machines can also identify when they need maintenance and perform self-maintenance. This has the effect of preventing breakdowns and reduce the downtime, increasing the overall production capacity and throughput.

Gartner is assuming 60% of IIoT analytics will be on-premise so this appears to drive the on-premise requirement. On-premise is certainly going to be important but 60% seems very high. It will be interesting to see if this continues to be a criterion since Gartner has left out some of the key leaders in the industry 4.0 companies.

The top industries adopting IoT are not a big surprise, the top 3 being: Industrial Products, Electronics and High Tech, and Automotive. Why Insustrial IoT , the answer is For any business that deals with the production and/or transportation of physical goods, IIoT can create game-changing operational efficiencies and present entirely new business models.

The major driver of industry 4.0. or we can say manufacturing 4.0  are

  • Wide spread use of sensors in Industrial IoT
  • Data analytics ( Bigdata)
  • Artificial intelligence & machine learning
  • Augmented reality systems
  • Touch & voice interfaces
  • Robotics

Benefits of IIOT:

we believe the IIoT provides benefits across four key areas,

  • Increased Efficiency: Capturing of more data about their processes and products through the use of technologies such as sensors and the data collected will provide valuable information to transform business practices or make real-time decisions.
  • Increased Revenue: IIOT opens up new models of business and brings new sources of revenue. The IIoT can help to monetize additional services on top of existing products.
  • Change in Business Models: The IIoT allows automation of some processes that can improve time-to-market, measure performance and rapidly respond to customer needs.New services and products are emerging & enabling new approaches create great value for customers.
  • Reduce Risk Management and Safety Compliance : IIoT can help reduce risk and monitor safety protocol adherence by identifying the areas where Machines can learn to monitor and audit compliance procedures, flagging irregularities and issues much more quickly than humans can.

Challenges in implementation of Industry 4.0:

  • IT security issues
  • Reliability and stability needed for critical machine-to-machine communication
  • Need to maintain the integrity of production processes
  • Protect industrial know how
  • Lack of adequate skill-sets
  • Threat of redundancy of the corporate IT department
  • General reluctance to change by stakeholders
  • Loss of jobs due to automation
  • Low top management commitment
  • Unclear legal issues and data security
  • Unclear economic benefits/ Excessive investment
  • Lack of regulation, standard and forms of certifications


We are already in process of building our simple Raspberry Pi projects, however I have received few queries on how to enable SSH in Raspberry Pi. So I thought I will write this post to share the details.

Enable SSH in Raspberry PI with monitor, Keyboard & mouse connected to Raspberry is pretty simple. You can refer my post Setup Raspberry Pi 3 for your IoT Projects & follow the steps to install NOOBS & boot to the home screen. Once you get in to the Pi Home screen , you can go to Preferences & click on Raspberry Pi Configuration .

Preferences->Raspberry Pi Configuration

This will bring up the configuration screen , go to the Tab Interfaces & select the radio button enabled for SSH. This will enable SSH to the PI & you can also enable Camera, VNC, Remote GPIO Pin etc in this screen.

Raspberry Pi Configuration

You can also go to Raspberry pi configuration screen through command Sudo raspi-config.

Now the interesting part was , how to enable SSH in Raspberry Pi with out monitor. You dont want to buy an HDMI cable & HDMI supported monitor to setup Raspberry Pi. Lets find out how we can enable SSH with out connecting monitor, keyboard or mouse to your Raspberry Pi.

To start you need to have different operating system, as NOOB will take you to the screen where you need to select the installation & configuration on the screen. So lets start with download of the Raspbian Operating system Raspbian Stretch lite from https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads

Go to the downloads location & select Raspbian & in the next page click on download Zip below Raspbian Stretch Lite.

Raspbian Stretch Lite download

Extract the zip folder & you will get the image file "yyyy-mm-dd-raspbian-stretch-lite" , The date, month & year will change as new versions are released.

Keep your Micro SD card formatted & ready for installation. Just make sure you are selecting the right drive letter.

Format Micro SD Card

 

To write the image to Micro SD card, you can use Win32disk imager or Etcher. Refer the installation instructions to install Etcher.

I have used Win32disk imager, you download it from the link  and run the EXE to install.Follow the installation instructions, select I agree for license agreement & click next.

 

Select the installation location , click next

Select the options in other screens & click next,you can keep them default & installation will progress. It may take few minutes.

 Once the installation is completed click om Finish & the Win 32 disk imager will be opened. By default the drive letter will be assigned to Micro SD card inserted to your PC, however make sure you double check & confirm the drive letter.

Win32 Disk Imager

Select the raspbian-stretch-lite.img file & write to Micro SD Card. You will be prompted with a message that all files will be erased, click on yes to confirm.

Writing Image to Micro SD Card

It will take 5 to 10 min to complete the image writing. Let us wait!.

Once the installation is completed, go to drive letter/boot.

create file in the name ssh in the boot partition folder. The file ssh is with out extension.you can simply create a text file and rename to ssh, remove the extension .txt.

SSH

Insert the micro SD to the Raspberry Pi , Connect the Ethernet cable to Pi , Micro USB cable & power on the device.

To connect the Raspberry Pi through SSH, you need to know the ip address of the device. You can get that from your router or you can run the command arp -a from the computer which is in the same network which will list the ip address of the devices connected in the same network. you can identify the ip for the Raspberry pi from it & use to connect to SSH.

To connect to the Pi  we need a SSH client software, we can use Putty for this. Download Putty from here.

Once you run Putty, enter the IP address of the Raspberry Pi , click on open. enter the default user name , password.

Default user name: pi

Default password: raspberry

 

you are connected to the raspberry pi now and don't need a monitor , keyboard or mouse to work on your raspberry pi.

To connect through SSH with out Ethernet cable & directly with WiFi , create a "wpa_supplicant.conf" file in the boot partition & enter the below details in it.

ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev
update_config=1

network={
ssid="YOUR_NETWORK_NAME"
psk="YOUR_NETWORK_PASSWORD"
proto=RSN
key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
pairwise=CCMP
auth_alg=OPEN
}

Enter your network name & your network password . I have tried this , it has worked some cases & some of the time it has not worked where I had to edit "/etc/network/interfaces" or "/etc/dhcpcd.conf " I still need to get a clear picture on what works on which cases so I am not giving more details on this here. You can refer the link which will give some clarification on this. You will not be directly able to access the locations ./etc if you are using windows machine as these partitions are Linux partitions. you will need special software do this. To access Linux partition in Windows I would recommend the software Ext2Fsd, you can download & install it from here. By this software you can connect the SD Card & access the folders directly & make the changes required.

As we have completed the setup of Raspberry Pi now & we are ready for running the projects using Raspberry pi. Let us proceed with our first simplest project. In this tutorial we will light a LED light which is connected to Raspberry Pi GPIO Pin using python programming.

What do you need:

  • Raspberry Pi
  • Bread Board
  • LED
  • Resistor -220 ohm
  • Jumper wires - Male to Female

Using a breadboard is the best way to do prototyping the electronic circuits rather soldering the components together on a PCB.We use breadboard to test circuit design & it is easy to make the changes , as we just need to re-plug the wires.

Below is the picture of breadboard & I have marked how the holes in the breadboard are interconnected. The top & bottom row holes are interconnected in the row & not in columns. However in the middle section in between, they are not interconnected in row hole , they are interconnected in the column holes.

Breadboard

We are also using a LED ( Ligh emitting diode), if you notice the LED one of the leg of LED is longer that the other. The longer leg is positive or called as Anode & shorter leg will negative or connected to ground which is called as Cathode. LED will glow when current is passed through it.

LED

We will be using 220 Ohm resistor in the circuit, we must always use the resistor to control the current flow between Raspberry Pi & LED. Resistor controls the current flow, Raspberry can only give a limited amount of current. The resistor value are calculated based on the color coding on the resistor, you can google around to find more details.

Resistor

We are using male to female jumper wires, as it is easy to connect to GPIO pins in Raspberry Pi & other end to breadboard.

Male to female Jumper wire

The details for GPIO pins I have described in my previous post, refer the post my IoT devices .

You can test the LED by connecting the LED to a power source like battery through a resistor.
I have used a 9V battery for testing, connect the positive to LED anode( Long led) , the LED cathode (shorter leg) is connected to 220 Ohm resistor & other end of resistor is connected to the negative point of battery. Refer the below pic.

Testing LED with Battery

Now in actual circuit with Raspberry pi ( I have used Raspberry Pi zero W), I have used the GPIO pin 7 for the circuit. Connect the GPIO PIN 7 to the anode of LED & the GPIO PIN 6 which the GND(ground) connect to the other end of resistor. Refer the below screenshot. Once we have the circuit setup & the raspberry pi is powered on, it is now time to write the python code.

LED circuit with Pi

To write the python code you can use python IDLE or you can even use text editor & save the file with extension .py. I prefer python IDLE as it comes with Raspbian libraries & it is easy to debug, also the errors in syntax can be easily identified.

Lets create a file LED.py & start our python program. I will start with a simple program to turn on the LED when we run the script.

Script 1 : Turn on LED

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
# We are importing the library , which will be telling the python interpreter how to work with Raspberry PI GPIO Pins.
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
# This will inform on how pin numbering on board to be used.
GPIO.setup(7, GPIO.OUT)
# we are setting GPIO Pin 7 as an Out Pin
GPIO.output(7,True)
# Setting the GPIO Pin 7 as True will make the GPIO pin 7 to High

Save the file & run the LED.py file. We need to run the script in superuser. To run the code

sudo python LED.py

The LED will be lit & will always on until we close the program.

Script 2: Keep the LED lit for 5 seconds & then turn off.

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
# We are importing the library , which will be telling the python interpreter how to work with Raspberry PI GPIO Pins.
import time
# We are improting the time library in this script to define the duration of the LED to be lit.
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
# This will inform on how pin numbering on board to be used.
GPIO.setup(7,GPIO.OUT)
# we are setting GPIO Pin 7 as an Out Pin.
GPIO.output(7,GPIO.HIGH)
# Setting the GPIO Pin 7 to High
time.sleep(5)
# Setting the duration to 5 sec to keep the LED lit.
GPIO.output(7,GPIO.LOW)
# Setting the GPIO Pin 7 to Low.
GPIO.cleanup()
# This is used to cleanup the GPIO Pin state.

Run the script using sudo python LED.py

Script 3: Blinking the LED for 10 times with delay of 5 sec in between.

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
# We are importing the library , which will be telling the python interpreter how to work with Raspberry PI GPIO Pins.
import time
# We are improting the time library in this script to define the duration of the LED to be lit.
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
# This will inform on how pin numbering on board to be used.
GPIO.setup(7,GPIO.OUT)
# we are setting GPIO Pin 7 as an Out Pin
for i in range(0,10):
# Run loop 10 times
         GPIO.output(7,GPIO.HIGH)
         # Setting the GPIO Pin 7 to High.
         time.sleep(5)
         # Setting the duration to 5 sec to keep the LED ON.
         GPIO.output(7,GPIO.LOW)
         # Setting the GPIO Pin 7 to Low.
         time.sleep(5)
         # Setting the duration to 5 sec to keep the LED OFF.
GPIO.cleanup()
# This is used to cleanup the GPIO Pin state.

We have successfully completed the first projects with LED in multiple variations. I hope you guys have enjoyed this.

PMP Vs PRINCE2

In the field of project management if you have ever wonder to be certified in project management , the two certifications you hear first are PMP & PRINCE2. You must be wondering now which certification I should pursue to apply in your project management career & grow in your knowledge.

Both PMP (Project management professional) & PRINCE2 (Projects in Controlled environment) are highly reputed in the project management field & gives you knowledge on understanding the project management concept & apply them throughout the project lifecycle. Both certifications have equal values, however you have to look in to other influencing factors to when picking the certification. If you are looking to take a decision on which certification is better , it is not that easy.Let me give you some details about both which will help you to make this decision.

Deciding Factors

Frame Work:

PRINCE2 is managed by APMG & is based on process which drive the project management. PRINCE2 is a methodology with a detailed process model & templates. PRINCE2 tells the step by step information on how to run a project & more practical. PRINCE2 focuses on the business benefits from projects in different phases to asses whether the project is giving value to organization & customer. The roles & responsibilities of each member of team is well defined. PRINCE2 have Process, principles, themes & deliverables.

PMP is one of highly regarded project management certification offered by PMI ( Project management institute). PMP is is a standard & not a methodology which is applicable or can be applied in all industries like construction, IT, government etc. PMP is based on understanding the knowledge as per PMBOK. PMP covered project process groups, knowledge areas & processes.

Geography:

If you are planning to take the certificatin, you must spend some time in doing the reasearch to select the suitable path. PMP & prince 2 are having higher value in certain geographies. PMP is preferred in US & other regions exept (UK, Europe), & PRINCE 2 is recognized in UK & Europe. If your project or you are going to manage project in US it is recommended to certify in PMP & it is in UK or Europe it is preffered to certify in PRINCE2. This will give you more value in respective location.

Salary:

As per the reports it is clear that certified project managers earns more than the non certified project managers. Having a certification specifically with PMP or PRINCE2 enhances the value of yours. As per survey shows that in US certified project managers get 20% more salary that non certified peers. PMP certified are getting more salary than PRINCE2 Certified as per the reports.

Exam:

I have covered the certification detail for PMP in my post pmp training project management certification

To shortly summarize, there are pre-requsites for PMP certification as below

Secondary degree (high school diploma, associate's degree or the global equivalent)
7,500 hours leading and directing projects
35 hours of project management education
OR

A four-year degree
4,500 hours leading and directing projects
35 hours of project management education

There are no specific pre-requisite for PRINCE2 Certification. PRINCE2 have both foundation & practitioner exam, to write practitioner you need to be certified on PRINCE2 foundation.

The cost of the PMP certification is USD555 for non PMI member & USD450 + USD 129 for PMI Member.

PMP exam duration is 4 hrs & have 200 questions. The questions are split across the process groups initiating, planning, executing, monitoring & controlling and closing.

PRINCE2 foundation exam duration is for 1 hr and have 75 questions. The practitioner exam duration is for 2.5 hrs.

To maintain the PMP certification you need to get 60 PDU or professional development unit every three years.

PRINCE2 exam there is no need for renewal. Practitioner certification is valid for 3 years & need to re-certify.

I have also found out that similar way to PMP, PRINCE2 also provide renewal of the practitioner certification through collection of CPD's . You can register for the membership of AXELOS & then collect 60 CPD's which will renew the certification. Refer the details here.

Networking:

One of the major benefit of PMP is you become a PMI member & which gives you opportunity to connect with experienced project managers in PMI chapters across the globe. You are eligible to use all the available resources in PMI & this give a great advantage & learn from experience.

PMP vs PRINCE2

Decision:

Both PRINCE2 & PMP are good certification & enhances your project management career, the decision on which one has to be completed depends on the industry, geography & benefits. If you can do the both certification it is well recommended to develop the project management skills across different standards & methodology.

PMP stands for Project Management Professional (PMP). PMP Certification is offered by the Project Management Institute(PMI) and is an industry-recognized credential for project managers. PMP certification demonstrates the project manager's experience, knowledge, skills and competencies required to lead and direct projects.

Some of Globally Recognized Certifications for Project managers are below

  • Project Management Professional (PMP)®
  • Program Management Professional (PgMP®)
  • PMI Portfolio Management Professional (PfMP)®
  • Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)®
  • PMI Scheduling Professional (PMI-SP)®
  • PMI Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP)®
  • PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)®
  • PMI Professional in Business Analysis (PMI-PBA)®
  • The Projects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE2)Certification


who should apply for PMP certifications ?

An experienced project manager who meets the following requirements:

  • Perform their duties under general supervision and are responsible for all aspects of the project for the life of the project
  • Lead and direct cross-functional teams to deliver projects within the constraints of schedule, budget and resources
  • Demonstrate sufficient knowledge and experience to appropriately apply a methodology to projects that have reasonably well-defined project requirements and deliverables

There are few prerequisites for you to apply for PMP certification. These are related to the qualification, experience hours in project management & learning or education hours on Project management topics.

Project management certifications requirements/PMP certification requirements

  • Secondary degree (high school diploma, or the global equivalent)
  • 7,500 hours leading and directing projects
  • 35 hours of project management education

Or

  • Four-year degree
  • 4,500 hours leading and directing projects
  • 35 hours of project management education

Certification Prerequisites

The PMP certification exam has 200 multiple-choice questions, and you have four hours to complete it.

Once you are certified in PMP, you need to maintain your PMP certification by earning 60 PDU's ( Professional development units) in every three years.

The cost for certification is US$555.00 for non-member & US$405.00 for PMI Member . For PMI membership it costs US $129, it is always recommended to become a PMI member as you will get lot of benefits becoming a part of PMI chapter. You will be able to download the PMBOK from PMI login & other books for your reference.

Application for PMP certification can be divided in to 4 step process

  • Create PMI login.
  • Submit the application with your project experience  & learning information.
  • Complete the audit process if selected.
  • Pay for the exam & book your seat.

Create PMI Login:

  1. Go to http://www.pmi.org/ and click on “Login / Register” .
  2. Enter the details , First Name, Last Name, Primary Email Address, Select country, Company name(You can put None if you are not part of any company), Job Title, Year you Born, etc, Select user name, password & set security question and answer.
  3. Click on create account
  4. You will receive a confirmation email for your registration & you can login to the PMI.
  5. Optionally you can purchase PMI membership , which is recommended. The cost of membership is $129 per year.

Submit the Application:

  1. Once you login to PMI , select the application for Project Management Professional.
  2. The application wizard will showup & you need to enter the Project management experience, education & learning details for 35 PDU.
  3. Depending upon your educational qualification you need to showcase the hours 4,500 and 7,500 hours of leading and directing project in order to qualify for the exam. You can provide the details which you have worked splitting the effort spend in each Project management process groups Initiating, Planning, executing, Monitoring & controlling and Closing for each individual project. Overall addition of hours should be come minimum of  4,500 and 7,500 hours as per your qualification criteria.
  4. Enter the details of training's or Web based learning you completed to achieve 35 PDU.
  5. Select the right projects & learning experience in the application as if your application is selected for Audit, you will have to get the signatures from relevant stakeholders to confirm your application.
  6. In any way do not try to enter incorrect information, lies or write things are inaccurate.
  7. Once you submit the application it will take 5-10 days for application review & email will be send to you once approved. If PMI is looking for more information they will contact you asking for more details. Don't get panic, if you have entered the right details you need to get the signatures & proof for respective queries & send to them in hard copy to the address.

Note: Once you start the application submission you have 90 days to complete the application.

Pay for the Exam & schedule your slot:

Once your application is approved, make the payment and move to final stage. The payment is completed, you will be receiving the email with eligibility number which is valid for 1 year. To book the exam schedule through Pro metric center https://www.prometric.com/en-us/clients/pmi/Pages/landing.aspx near your location.

The PMP exam is made out of 200 multiple choice questions & the duration of the test is 4hours, with no scheduled break. Out of 200 questions random 25 question are for statistical sampling only – meaning you do not get any point if you answer them correctly.

Congratulations, you are all set now to take up the exam. You need continuous dedicated effort to learn for PMP certification, there are lot of terminologies, tools, techniques which you need understand & correlate to the question. There are several formulas also need to be kept in mind which can easily get you some confirmed score for those questions.

To get 35 PDU it is recommended to attend any instructor led PMP certification course or Project management training from reputed institutes or there are web based training also available like Simplilearn, Pluralsight, Udemy etc. Make sure the training is covering whole Process groups, Knowledge areas & Processes.

In this post I will cover all the things which you need to know to setup your Raspberry Pi to make it ready for your Internet of Things projects.

We will be using Raspberry Pi 3  model B+, which is the latest Pi available in market & this is having good specifications as listed below

  • Quad Core 1.2GHz Broadcom BCM2837 64bit CPU
  • 1GB RAM
  • BCM43438 wireless LAN and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) on board
  • 100 Base Ethernet
  • 40-pin extended GPIO
  • 4 USB 2 ports
  • 4 Pole stereo output and composite video port
  • Full size HDMI
  • CSI camera port for connecting a Raspberry Pi camera
  • DSI display port for connecting a Raspberry Pi touchscreen display
  • Micro SD port for loading your operating system and storing data
  • Upgraded switched Micro USB power source up to 2.5A

Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+


There are  lot of version of Operating system available to install in Pi, however we will use NOOBS (New Out Of Box Software). There are 2 ways NOOBS can be installed & we will go through them step by step.

You do have Raspberry Pi , What else you need to start the installation?

  1. A Micro USB Power supply 
  2. Micro SD Card ( Recommended 8 GB)
  3. TV or Computer Monitor
  4. HDMI cable
  5. Ethernet Cable ( If don't have wireless)

Setting up the Memory Card

  • Download the Operating system (NOOBS)

First step is to download NOOBS & have it ready in your PC.

Go to https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads & you will be able to see multiple version of Operating system listed in the page.

We will be using NOOBS for installation, click on NOOBS. In the next page you will have 2 options NOOBS & NOOBS LITE.

NOOBS is an easy operating system installer which contains Raspbian and LibreELEC. It also provides a selection of alternative operating systems which are then downloaded from the internet and installed.

NOOBS Lite contains the same operating system installer without Raspbian pre-loaded. It provides the same operating system selection menu allowing Raspbian and other images to be downloaded and installed

NOOBS

Click on download zip for NOOBS & NOOBS LITE. we will use both in this post however to install you don't need to download both. You can download only one of the OS & can follow the procedure respective to it.

Once you downloaded the zip file, Right click & extract to the folder.

NOOBS will have files listed as below in the folder.

NOOBS

For NOOBS Lite

NOOBS LITE

  • Format the SD Card

Before we copy the NOOBS to the SD card , it has to be formatted. Use the software SD Memory Card formatter to do the same. Download the Card Formatter from https://www.sdcard.org/downloads/formatter_4/index.html & install it on your PC. When you go to the download page , you can select download respective to your PC operating system, & then click on Agree in license agreement.

Go the downloaded folder & run the SDcardformatterXXXsetup.exe . Once the installation is completed you will be able to select the drive from the drop down to the SD Card drive letter. Make sure you are selecting the right drive letter when formatting. Use SD Card reader to insert Micro SD card & connect to the PC. Once you selected the drive letter correctly, click on format. We are ready now to copy the NOOBS to the SD card once the formatting is completed & start the OS installation.

SD Card Formatter

  • Copy the NOOBS file to SD Card

Now open the windows explorer copy the files from NOOBS or NOOBS LITE folder & paste the files in to the SD card. Once the files are copied eject the SD Card from PC.

NOOBS Copying

  • Insert the SD card with NOOBS copied in to the Raspberry Pi
  • Connect the  keyboard, Mouse & TV with HDMI cable to the Pi, connect the Pi to the powercable & power on the device. if you dont have wireless connection, connect the Pi to Ethernet cable from your internet modem or router.

Once you power on the Pi, you will be getting the LED light flashing & the screen on the monitor will be displaying booting screen. Since this is the first time you are booting the Pi with SD card, you will be prompted to select the OS to install. Select Raspbian (Recommended) & click on Install button on top , click on yes on the warning message.Wait till the installation is completed.

NOOBS boot Up screen

Installation Screen

Once the installation is completed click on OK.

You will be taken in to the next screen where you need to reset the password for Pi, by default all raspberry comes with host name as Pi & password as raspberry. For security reason you need to modify the password which is recommended. Once you have changed the password ( Make sure you note this down some where) , you will be given option to select location, keyboard settings & connect to WiFi. Connect to the WiFi entering the password for your WiFi, Raspberry will look for the updates & will start downloading the updates from internet. This may take some time depending upon your internet speed. Once the download & installation of updates completed, click on reboot prompt & the Raspberry pi will be booted in to the desktop.

Pi Desktop

Wow!. its great, you have installed OS & your PI is ready now. You can check the Python installed in the PI by clicking on the Button on top left corner & going to the applications. We will be using python programs to run our projects. Wish you all the best to start your IoT projects. Will meet in next posts.


Before getting in to deep of IoT projects & its implementation i would like to give some idea on what are the common IoT devices which i used & can be used from your end for home automation's.

As you know sensor is a major component of IoT , you can refer my post on IoT sensors to get details on the same.

I would like to talk about ESP8266 Node MCU, Raspberry Pi & Arduino boards in this section which is easily available & can do lot of automation's with simple Python or Arduino IDE.

Designed by Freepik

NodeMCU is an open source IoT platform developed by ESP8266 Opensource Community runs Operating system XTOS. Node MCU is a SOC (System on Chip)with integrated WiFi and widely used in IoT.

ESP8266 Node MCU


Pin details are below

dex ESP8266 pin IO index ESP8266 pin
0 [*] GPIO16 7 GPIO13
1 GPIO5 8 GPIO15
2 GPIO4 9 GPIO3
3 GPIO0 10 GPIO1
4 GPIO2 11 GPIO9
5 GPIO14 12 GPIO10
6 GPIO12

Refer the link for Node MCU documentation.

Raspberry Pi is a small affordable computer , it was initially developed in United Kingdom to promote teaching of basic computers in schools. Raspberry Pi comes with integrated WiFi, Bluetooth, USB ports , Micro USB, Mirco HDMI or HDMI port , Camera slot & 40 GPIO Pins.

GPIO PIN

Raspberry Pi have multiple models released in market, the recent ones which i have used are Raspberry Pi Zero W & Raspberry Pi 3.

Pi Zero

Pi 3


To know the Raspberry Pi price click on the picture.

Raspberry pi projects kindly refer my post http://www.thetips4you.com/iot-projects-or-internet-of-things-projects/ for details.

Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. It's intended for anyone making interactive projects. Arduino board uses variety of microprocessors and controllers, they have digital pins which are used to connect to devices, breadboard. Arduino provides its own integrated development environment to do the coding & push to  the hardware.

The common one used is Arduino Uno. If you need other features like WiFi, bluetooth etc, you need to get additional Arduino shield and attach to the board.

Arduino Uno

 

Arduino Shield

 

You can also see in the market there are lot of readily available home IoT devices, which you can buy & use with out any modifications. Lets see some of those.

  • Amazon Echo

Amazon Echo is a hands-free speaker you control with your voice. Echo connects to the AlexaVoice Service to play music, make calls, send and receive messages, provide information, news, sports scores, weather, and more—instantly

  • Echo connects to Alexa to play music, make calls, set music alarms and timers, ask questions, control smart home devices, and more—instantly.
  • Just ask for a song, artist, or genre from Amazon Music, Spotify, Pandora, and more. With multi-room music, you can play music on compatible Echo devices in different rooms. Echo can also play Audible audiobooks, radio stations, news briefs, and more.
  • Call or message almost anyone hands-free with your Echo device. Also, instantly connect to other Echo devices in your home using just your voice.

Amazon Echo

  • Smart Lighting - Philips Hue

Smart lighting is a lighting technology designed for energy efficiency. This may include high efficiency fixtures and automated controls that make adjustments based on conditions such as occupancy or daylight availability

Philips Hue is your personal wireless lighting system that lets you easily control your light and create the right ambiance for every moment. Bring your smart home to life with the most connected light in the world.

  • Neurio

Provides a real-time view on how your home’s electricity is being used, displayed on your phone or web app, Helps you reduce home energy costs by up to 20%,Provides bill forecasting so you know what your utility bill will be before it arrives,Highly accurate total home monitoring, within 1% – independently verify your energy bills.

 

Neurio

  • Smart Wifi Switch - Sonoff Smart Switch

Remote ON/OFF–Turn electrical devices on/off from anywhere App Support –Free iOS and Android mobile App eWeLink Sync Status–Real-time device status provided to App Timing–Set scheduled/countdown/loop timers to turn on/off at specified time Share Control– Control your smart home together with your family Scene–Turn on/off a gang of devices with one tap Smart Scene–Triggered on/off by temp, hum or other environmental conditions from sensor Compatibility –Works perfectly with Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, IFTTT, Google Nest Home automation is "The Internet of Things". It simply means the way all devices or appliances are networked together to provide users with a seamless control over their home equipment. Sonoff Basic is an affordable WiFi smart switch that provides users with smart home control.

 

Sonoff Smart Switch

  • Smart Plugs - Sonoff Smart Plug

Controlled by an app, a smart plug lets you turn on and off any appliance that plugs into a standard wall socket. ... Simply plug it into any wall socket, then plug your chosen appliance into it. You can use it with a lamp, a TV, a cable box, a coffee machine—whatever you like

 

Sonoff Smart Plug

  • Smart Surveillance Camera - YI Home Camera Surveillance system

720P video, infrared night vision, 111 wide angle lens, 4x digital zoom,Two way audio communication, real-time video streaming to your phone iOS and android; motion detection alerts setup

YI Smart Camera

  • Smart Locks - August Smart Keypad

Secure, code-based home entry,Accessory for the August Smart Lock,Create unique codes instantly from your smartphone anytime.

August Smart Keypad

  • Smart Heating & cooling system

HVAC Systems In Smart Homes. ... A Heating, Ventilation and AirConditioning (HVAC) system is a complete system designed for the purpose of keeping indoor air safe and comfortable for the inhabitants of a home, business or other building.


Some of the major IoT platforms  or Internet of things companies are listed below

A fully managed service to easily and securely connect, manage, and ingest data from globally dispersed devices.

Key features:

  1. Secure device connection and management
  2. Zero touch device provisioning to Cloud IoT Core
  3. Establish two-way communication with your devices
  4. Fully managed and scalable
  5. Device deployment at scale

Google IoT

AWS IoT Core is a platform that enables you to connect devices to AWS Services and other devices, secure data and interactions, process and act upon device data, and enable applications to interact with devices even when they are offline

Key features :

  1. AWS IoT Device SDK
  2. Device Gateway
  3. Message Broker
  4. Authentication & Authorization
  5. Registry
  6. Device Shadow
  7. Rule Engine

Amazon IoT

Azure IoT Edge is a fully managed service that delivers cloud intelligence locally by deploying and running artificial intelligence (AI), Azure services, and custom logic directly on cross-platform IoT devices. Run your IoT solution securely and at scale—whether in the cloud or offline.

Key Features

  1. Establish bidirectional communication with billions of IoT devices
  2. Authenticate per device for security-enhanced IoT solutions
  3. Automate IoT device provisioning and registration to accelerate your IoT deployment
  4. Extend the power of the cloud to your edge device

Azure IoT

IBM Watson is an IoT platform which is pretty much taken among developers already. Backed by IBM’s hybrid cloud PaaS (platform as a service) development platform, the Bluemix, Watson IoT enables developers to easily deploy IoT applications.

Improve IT operations, accelerate innovation and deliver exceptional performance with the power of a data-driven and knowledge-based IT services platform

Key Features:

  1. Device Management
  2. Secure Communications
  3. Real Time Data Exchange
  4. Data Storage
  5. Recently added data sensor and weather data service

IBM Whatson IoT

Bosch’s IoT platform, the Bosch IoT Suite, provides all key middleware capabilities needed to build sophisticated IoT applications from top to bottom.

Key Features:

  1. Trusted and secure
  2. Open and flexible
  3. Innovative
  4. Ready to use
  5. Device management

Bosch IoT

Dell takes a pragmatic approach to the Internet of Things (IoT) by building on the equipment and data you already have, and leveraging your current technology investments, to quickly and securely enable analytics-driven action.

Offerings:

  1. Internet of Things Infrastructure
  2. Internet of Things Analytics
  3. Internet of Things security
  4. Internet of Things industries
  5. Internet of Things Labs

Dell IoT

There are lots of new business opportunities in the fire hose of IoT data that’s streaming from today’s internet-connected products. Yet behind the billions of connected apps, devices, sensors, and sites, there are customers. So make sure you’re giving customers the best experience with Salesforce IoT, the only platform designed to put your IoT data where it will do your customers the most good: right inside Salesforce.

Key Features:

  1. Build complete customer device profiles.
  2. Input data from everywhere
  3. Easily create IoT engagement rules with clicks, not code.
  4. Visualise all your IoT devices in one place.
  5. Natively connect to the Customer Success Platform.

Google cloud

AWS IoT

Azure IoT

IBM Watson

 

 

 

 

 

Comparison of Major IoT platforms:

IoT platform Comparison

There are free IoT platforms available also like

  1. Cayenne
  2. Thingboard
  3. Blynk

IoT platform remains the heart of the entire IoT ecosystem regardless of the IoT solution that you are planning to adopt.Choosing the right IoT platform is an important decision that you need to make before you start your IoT journey

Some of the deciding factor which you need to look on selecting the IoT platforms are

  1. Scalability : As you move forward in your journey of IoT product, there will be need to add more & more devices, so the IoT platform should be able to support easy scalability to accommodate your requirement.
  2. Customizable : It is very difficult to get all features you need in a single IoT platform. So you have to decide which is best & it should be easy customizable to your requirements. Your vendor is capable of customizing your IoT applications and implementation strategy that fosters your business goals .
  3. Cloud Infrastructure : Rather than going with on premise infrastructure it is always advisable for Private or hybrid IoT cloud. This give easy accessibility & high computing capabilities.
  4. Data Security : This is very important aspect, there is always discussion on how much the data is secured now & when using cloud.

The information on open source IoT platforms comparison is listed here , You need look in to the IoT platform features,IoT platform providers and IoT platforms design methodology to decide which platform is suitable for your project and to have IoT platforms enable for your IoT projects.


First we should know what is a project, usually people are confused between project & operations. They call operations as project.

Project:

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to produce a unique product or service

The characteristics of projects are

  • Specific start and end date
  • Has a defined objective
  • Series of tasks to achieve a defined outcome or objective

 

Project Characteristic

Projects are undertaken to full-fill objectives by producing deliverables. The deliverables may be tangible or intangible.

Fulfillment of project objectives may produce one or more deliverables like

  1. Unique product ( a complete product or enhancement of a existing product or correction of product etc.)
  2. Unique service ( a support function)
  3. Unique result ( new process, documents etc.)
  4. Unique combination of one or more of the above.

The temporary nature of project indicate that it have a definite start & end date. Temporary doesnt means that the project have to be short duration like months, projects can span for years duration.

while operations is concerned with the ongoing production of goods or services.

Project Management:

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools & technique to the project activities to meet the project requirement. Project management enables the organization to execute the projects effectively & efficiently.

The core component of project management are

  • Business case for why a project is necessary
  • Capturing project requirements, specifying quality of the deliverable, estimating resources and timescales
  • Developing and implementing a management plan for the project
  • Leading and motivating the project delivery team
  • Managing the risks, issues and changes on the project
  • Monitoring Project progress against plan
  • Managing the project budget
  • Maintaining communications with stakeholders and the project organisation
  • Procurement management
  • closing the project in a controlled fashion when appropriate.

Effective project management helps organization to

  1. Meet business objectives
  2. Meet stakeholders expectations
  3. Increase chance of successful project
  4. Manage constraints
  5. Manage risks in timely manner
  6. Control changes

Poorly managed project with out project management will fail & result in

  1. Missed deliverables
  2. High cost
  3. Poor quality
  4. Rework
  5. Lost of reputation for organization
  6. Unsatisfied stakeholders

It is the responsibility of IT project manager to make sure the projects are completed successfully. We can cover more about the project manager responsibilities in upcoming days.

Project management is used in most of the industries

  • Transport and infrastructure
  • IT
  • Product manufacture
  • Building and construction
  • Regulatory changes in finance and law

Lot of people do project management in current organization because of they are promoted to this position as they were doing good in their Job, they must have been good in technical topics & they are promoted to PM role assuming they will do good in this position also.

The project management basics is to use project management skills, tools, technologies to make sure that the projects are completed successfully, tailor the project management principles suiting for your project & organizational needs.

you need to be patient when taking the role of Project manager, the first step to the Project management is the right education.

There are 5 Project management process group as listed below

  • Initiating
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Monitoring & controlling
  • Closing

You don't need to start with a degree, learn from experience at the same time understand the project management terminologies, concept, benefits of right project management through CAPM, PMBOK , Prince2 similar courses & completing certifications will give additional value. Certified project managers will have more value in the market than others.

To become an expert project management professional, throughout your career, you will find yourself learning new skills. This is because no two projects are ever the same. Also, you will find that each project comes with its own set of unique challenges, forcing you to make changes to your plan of action for each of these.

In upcoming post we will be talking in detail about 5 process groups

There are 49 knowledge areas as per PMBOK and the same we will be also covered in later posts.

  1. Develop Project charter
  2. Identify Stakeholders
  3. Develop Project management plan
  4. Plan Scope management plan
  5. Collect requirements
  6. Define scope
  7. Create WBS
  8. Plan schedule management (Project time management)
  9. Define activities
  10. Sequence activities
  11. Estimate activity duration's
  12. Develop schedule
  13. Plan cost management
  14. Estimate costs
  15. Determine budget
  16. Plan quality management
  17. Plan resource management
  18. Estimate activity resources
  19. Plan communication management
  20. Plan risk management
  21. Identify risks
  22. Perform qualitative risk management
  23. Perform quantitative risk management
  24. Plan risk response
  25. Plan procurement management
  26. Plan stakeholder management
  27. Direct & manage project work
  28. Manage project knowledge
  29. Manage quality
  30. Acquire resources
  31. Develop team
  32. Manage team
  33. Manage communications
  34. Implement risk responses
  35. Conduct procurement's
  36. Manage stakeholder engagement
  37. Monitor and control project work
  38. Perform integrated change control
  39. validate scope
  40. Control scope
  41. Control schedule
  42. Control cost
  43. Control quality
  44. Control resources
  45. Monitor communications
  46. Monitor risks
  47. Control procurement's
  48. Monitor stakeholder engagement
  49. Close project or phase

The 49 Processes can be clubbed in to group of 10 knowledge areas which are

  1. Project Integration Management
  2. Project Scope Management
  3. Project Schedule Management
  4. Project Cost Management
  5. Project Quality Management
  6. Project Resource Management
  7. Project Communication Management
  8. Project Risk Management
  9. Project Procurement Management
  10. Project Stakeholder Management

Project Process Group


Those who have heard of IoT , would have also heard of IoT platform. There are lot of IoT platforms available now & it is keep growing year or year.

IoT platform is a key component in IoT ecosystem . In this post i would try to provide the explanation on IoT platform as simple as possible.

First we should re-collect the components of IoT system to understand IoT platform. To know more about what is IoT or what is Internet of Things ,I have covered the details in my previous blog what is IoT.

The major components of IoT systems are Sensors/devices , Connectivity, data processing & user interface.

The sensors & devices collect data from environment or perform the actions like temperature reading, location tracking, moisture data etc.To send these data to data processing there should be a medium .The data will be send mainly to cloud ( what is cloud ? i will submit some blog for this in future) & receive from cloud back to the devices. In IoT system these are mainly done through gateways.

To make this user friendly , there is a need for a user interface or software that can be used to interact with IoT systems , example a web dashboard which shows the trend of the data analyzed, button to control the devices like switching of light, park vehicle etc.

Definition for IoT platform:

IoT platforms are the support software that connects everything in an IoT system. An IoT platform facilitates communication, data flow, device management, and the functionality of applications.

we can say IoT platform is a multilayered technology, that connects the sensors/devices,  provision them, manage them & can automate the connection of the devices in the Internet of Things. With IoT platform its easy to connect to the devices to the cloud & data processing. It connects remote devices to user applications and manages all the interactions between the hardware and the application layers.

Some of the main common features of IoT platforms are,

  • Registry for recognizing devices
  • Software Development Kit for devices
  • Device Shadows
  • Secure Device Gateway
  • Rules engine for inbound message evaluation

IoT  Architecture:

We could say there are 4 layers in an IoT stack

  1. Physical
  2. Communication
  3. Infrastructure
  4. Application

IoT architecture

Your devices connect to the platform, which sits in the cloud or in your on-premises data center, either directly or by using an IoT gateway. There are multiple protocols used for communication , refer the link IoT Standards and Protocols for more info.

The IoT platform itself can be decomposed to multiple layers

  1. Infrastructure
  2. Communication
  3. Core features ( Data collection, Device management, Configuration management, messaging, Software updates etc.)

Advantages of IoT platform:

  1. scalable ( Easily able to add more end points or devices)
  2. customizable (Easily modify to the business need & add more features)
  3. secured ( Encryption & data security)
  4. User friendly ( GUI or good user interfaces)

 

Some of the major IoT platforms are listed below

  1. Google Cloud IoT 
  2. AWS IoT Core
  3. Microsoft Azure IoT
  4. IBM Watson IoT
  5. Bosch IoT Suite
  6. Dell IoT
  7. Salesforce IoT
  8. Oracle IoT cloud platform

Above has given you IoT Platform companies list , To more about Top IoT platform Companies  features refer http://www.thetips4you.com/iot-platform-companies/

There are free IoT platforms available also like

  1. Cayenne ( I have used this for lot of my projects, will share more in upcoming blogs on how to do the IoT projects with Cayenne)
  2. Thingsboard
  3. Blynk

These are opensource IoT platforms & most of these platforms provide API to support the Linux hacker board such as Raspberry Pi, Arduino.

We get a easy user interfaces to add the devices, customize the action to be done with the devices, connect to respective GPIO Pin of the raspberry or Arduino. Most of the necessary features are inbuilt in the IoT platforms, we make use of those to build our home projects.  Simply add a relay button in Cayenne connect to your respective GPIO pin with a toggle switch so you can control the lights connected to the relay.

Refer the posts to know more about IoT sensors and IoT Devices .


What is Internet of Things?

Considering we all know about internet, before we go in to Internet of Things let me give a short note on What is internet.

By definition Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

The term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected devices. In simple definition of internet, we can say the Internet can be defined as the mode of communication through which one can receive, transmit information between multiple devices (Things) that can be used for multiple operations.

The things can be physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, electronic devices, sensors, actuators, software etc. which can be connected & exchange data.

Now i think we should be able to answer for what is iot.

IoT meaning or IoT full form : Internet of Things.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

In simple terms we can say IoT is a system of things integrated with sensors, softwares, electronics which are connected to each other & can exchange data or Information with other connected devices.

How IoT works:

If you do a google search you may notice lot of articles however if still not able to understand the IoT basics, let me give you a short explanation.

The main pillars of IoT projects or IoT solutions are

  • Sensors/Devices

Sample sensors are below

 

  • Connectivity

ESP8266 Wifi module is a sample connectivity device

  • Data Processing

Data processing is done mainly in cloud , using data analytics tools.

The Sensors & devices can be like temperature sensor, motion sensor, camera, GPS etc. and to connect these devices each others there should be a medium like Internet ( WiFi) , Bluetooth, satellite, Cellular etc. And last the data send between the devices need to be stored & analyzed like in cloud, data analytics software etc.

There can be optional user interface also be part of it in  through which useful information can be viewed, monitored, alerts can be set etc.

The number of IoT devices increased 31% year-over-year to 8.4 billion in 2017 and it is estimated that there will be 30 billion devices by 2020

Connectivity or network is the crucial technology for IoT, there are several wired & wireless technologies available now

  • Short range wireless communication

Bluetooth, wireless, Radio frequency, Z-wave, Zigbee

  • Medium range wireless communication

LTE advanced, Halow

  • Long range wireless communication

Long range wireless, satellite

  • Wired

Ethernet, power line communication

The challenges on IoT is more related to security & data sources, different regions & governments have laws for data protection. How your IoT devices can embed the law & regulations when you make your IoT solutions.

According to the Business Insider Intelligence Survey conducted in the last quarter of 2014, 39% of the respondents said that security is the biggest concern in adopting Internet of things technology.

As IoT are growing, we are talking about more connected machines & the probability of cyber attacks are more.

The IoT soultions are spread across wide areas and some are listed below

  • Smart Home

IoT devices part of home automations like lighting, temperature control, air conditioning, security systems etc.

  • Enterprise applications

IoT devices used in corporate & business

  • Infrastructure applications

Monitoring & controlling of infrastructure like bridges, railways, roads, traffic etc.

  • Manufacturing

Integration in manufacturing area with sensors for identification, communication, tracking etc is improving the efficiency of manufacturing area. Example like opening the door automatically when truck comes.

  • Agriculture

There are numerous IoT applications in farming such as collecting data on temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, pest infestation, and soil content. This data can be used to automate farming techniques, take informed decisions to improve quality and quantity, minimize risk and waste, and reduce effort required to manage crops.

  • Environmental monitoring

IoT solutions for environmental protection , monitoring rivers, water quality , forest area etc.

  • Energy Monitoring

Lot of power sources can be connected & can communicate each other for better utilization of power.

  • Medical & Healthcare

IoT devices for health monitorings & other activities in hospitals, health centers.

One of the key drivers of the IoT is data. The success of the idea of connecting devices to make them more efficient is dependent upon access to and storage & processing of data. For this purpose, companies working on IoT collect data from multiple sources and store it in their cloud network for further processing. This leaves the door wide open for privacy and security dangers and single point vulnerability of multiple systems . This brings up the points on government regulations on data protection, this varies from country to country.

i will be covering the details on IoT Platform in my coming blogs.

Reference IoT Wiki : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things