The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

In simple terms we can say IoT is a system of things integrated with sensors, softwares, electronics which are connected to each other & can exchange data or Information with other connected devices.

What is a Gateway?

A gateway is a piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications for telecommunications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another. Gateways are distinct from routers or switches in that they communicate using more than one protocol and can operate at any of the seven layers of the open systems interconnection model (OSI).The term gateway can also loosely refer to a computer or computer program configured to perform the tasks of a gateway, such as a default gateway or router.

What is a IoT Gateway?

As IoT grows and billions of connected devices enter the world, one of the most critical components of future internet of things systems may be a device known as an IoT gateway. The importance of IoT gateways is understandable .

An Internet of Things (IoT) gateway is an integral part of an IoT ecosystem, handling communication with local sensors and remote users among a suite of other functions.

What is IoT edge gateway ? An Internet of things gateway provides the bridge between IoT devices in the field, the cloud, and user equipment such as smartphones. The IoT gateway provides a communication link between the field and the cloud and can provide offline services and real-time control over the devices in the field. Simple IoT gateway definition we can say IoT gateway aggregates sensor data, translates between sensor protocols, processes sensor data before sending it.

The interconnected devices communicate by using lightweight IoT gateway protocols like bus-based (DDS, REST, XMPP) and broker based (AMPQ, CoAP, MQTT, JMI) that don't require extensive CPU resources.To handle any needed protocol conversion, database storage or decision making, IoT nodes use separate IoT gateways in order to supplement the low-intelligence of devices.

The sensors generate huge amount of data per second and IoT gateway hardware provides a place to preprocess that data locally before sending it on to the cloud. When data is collected and analyzed at the edge, it minimizes the amount of data that needs to be forwarded on to the cloud and this is the use of iot gateway or we can say IoT gateway functionality.

IoT Gateway Architecture:

If you are thinking why you need an IoT Gateway, With IoT solutions, we have to deal with tons of devices working in the field and because the nature of these devices is very different like web, desktop, smart phones etc we need an intermediate architectural element that will act as a proxy between the world of field devices and the enterprise data center. That's why What we need is an IoT gateway.

The IoT gateway software or IoT gateway hardware is not just a dump proxy that forwards data from sensors to backend services. Sending all the information collected by sensors to the cloud or storage data center would be highly ineffective in terms of performance and network utilization. The IoT gateway will perform the pre-processing of information in the field, before they’re sent to the data center and it is the main function of the iot gateway.

An IoT ecosystem is made up of many components, or layers. The bottom layer contains the sensors and devices. The gateway acts as a secure intermediary between these sensors, devices and the cloud. The top layer handles overall monitoring and management of the IoT ecosystem, with analytics of the collected and persisted data, including applications.

IoT gateway architecture

IoT gateways consist of a hardware platform and an operating system and expose a rich set of services for your IoT application. The gateway software installed on the device is responsible for collecting data from the sensor, pre-processing that data, and sending the results to the data center.

IoT gateway architecture

A large number of manufacturers are involved in the IoT gateways design and production and some of iot gateway providers or iot gateway hardware manufacturers include CISCO, Harman International Industries, Advantech, ADLINK, Supermicro, Intel (intel iot gateway) , and NXP.

Are there any opensource IoT gateway or free iot gateway available ? Thingsboard is a iot gateway open source. The ThingsBoard IoT Gateway is an open-source solution that allows you to integrate IoT devices connected to legacy and third-party systems with ThingsBoard. ThingsBoard is an open-source IoT platform that enables rapid development, management and scaling of IoT applications. Refer the link for more details.

Refer the link for iot gateway wiki.


In this article we will talk about what is traditional project management ?, what is agile project management? and difference between traditional and agile project management.

What is a project?

project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to achieve unique product or services.

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools & technique to the project activities to meet the project requirement. Project management enables the organization to execute the projects effectively & efficiently.

Project Management Process Groups:

A classic project management Processes are grouped together in to five process groups. to differentiate between traditional and modern project management we should know about the project management process first. The Logical grouping of project management processes to achieve specific project objectives are called Project Management Process Groups. Below are the five process groups and basic principles of traditional project management.

  1. Initiating Process group: The processes part of initiating process group are performed at the time of new project or new phase of existing project.
  2. Planning Process group: The processes part of planning process groups helps in defining the plan for the project like defining scope, planning for schedule, cost, procurement, communications etc.  This helps in defining the course for the project to achieve its objectives.
  3. Executing Process group: The processes in executing process group is performed to complete the defined work as per plan to satisfy the project stakeholders.
  4. Monitoring & Controlling Process group: As part of monitoring & controlling process group, the performance of project is tracked, monitored, reviewed & controlled. The variation from plan is derived & identify what changes are required to bring back the project on track.
  5. Closing Process group: The processes part of closing process group are done at the time of closing the project to close the project formally.

Traditional project management:

Traditional project management or Waterfall project management is mainly used on projects where activities are completed in a sequence and there are rarely any changes.

The concept of traditional project management is based on predictable experience and predictable tools. Each project follows the same lifecycle, which includes five stages: initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing.The ultimate goal of waterfall project management was to make sure all the tasks are carried out in a predetermined orderly sequence.

The waterfall approach is linear where all the phases of a process occur in sequence. It depends on predictable tools and predictable experience. Every project follows the same life cycle which includes the stages.

Gantt chart is the most important technique in traditional project management. Gantt chart gives you a simple overview of a project. It is one of the most useful ways of presenting tasks and activities of the project on a timeline.

Agile project management and agile software development have become hot topics in recent years, however Agile might be the best approach for some projects, other projects still require the rigor of a more traditional approach.

The entire project is planned upfront and any scope for changing requirements is not appreciated. Acceptance of changes is one of the major difference factor in traditional project management vs agile. We can also say agile as modern project management , let see how differ traditional project management vs modern project management .

 

Traditional Project Management

What is Agile?

In simple terms agile meaning is able to move quickly and easily.

Agile software development is an approach to software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing and cross-functional teams and their customer(s)/end user(s).[1] It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, empirical knowledge, and continual improvement, and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change.

Scrum is a type of agile methodology. It is essentially an agile process framework.Scrum follows a set of fixed length iterations in which the product is developed. Each of these iterations are called as Sprint. Typically, each sprint is fixed somewhere within  1 week to 4 week.

Agile Project Management:

Agile project management is an approach based on delivering requirements iteratively and incrementally throughout the project life cycle.Agile approach shifts more quickly to execution and spends less time on planning.The basic concept behind Agile software development is that it delves into evolving changes and collaborative effort to bring out results rather than a predefined process.Scrum and Kanban are two of the most widely used Agile frameworks.Agile approaches empower those involved, and agile philosophy concentrates on empowered people and their interactions and early and constant delivery of value into an enterprise and this is one of the main difference between agile and waterfall project.

Why Agile ?

Some of the key benefit from project management Agile Methodology is below.

  • Adaptability
  • Time-to-market
  • Reduced costs
  • Customer satisfaction

Agile vs Waterfall project management

 

Agile vs Waterfall:

It is not always not necessary to use agile approach. A blended approach can bring synergy utilizing best of both Agile and Waterfall.

Key difference between agile vs traditional project management are

  • Waterfall is used when project is relatively familiar where as agile is used when project is relatively unfamiliar.
  • TPM or Traditional Project management is used when project have defined clear scope and deliverables where are Agile is used when there are  evolving changes in scope.
  • TPM is more of negotiation with customer where are Agile is a collaboration with customer.

As part of this tutorial we have covered agile project management vs project management . We will talk more about scrum and Kanban in coming tutorials.

Project Management:

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools & technique to the project activities to meet the project requirement. Project management enables the organization to execute the projects effectively & efficiently.

PMBoK has released 6th edition in 2018 and all project management enthusiast are looking for pmp 6th edition questions and answers to clear pmp exam.

You can refer the links project management questions and answers and project manager scenario based interview questions and answers for some of the sample pmp exam questions 6th edition.

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to produce a unique product or service

The characteristics of projects are

  • Specific start and end date
  • Has a defined objective
  • Series of tasks to achieve a defined outcome or objective

Projects are undertaken to full-fill objectives by producing deliverables. The deliverables may be tangible or intangible.

In this article I have tried to cover pmp practice exam with answers and hope this is useful for Project Managers and those who are pursuing PMP certification.  There are other pmp simulation exam free and other free practice tests for pmp online available however here I have given you 20 sample pmp exam questions and answers to test your knowledge.

1.Which is the BEST definition of quality?
A. A product made of very expensive materials and cost more.
B. A product made with a lot of care by the team who built it
C. A product that satisfies the requirements of the people who pay for it
D. A product that passes all of its tests and no bugs found.

Answer : C

2. Which of the following is NOT an input to Perform Quality Control?
A. Deliverables
B. Work Performance Measurements
C. Quality Checklists
D. Validated Changes

Answer : D

3. You are the project manager for a railroad construction project. Your sponsor has asked you for a forecast
for the cost of project completion. The project has a total budget of $80,000 and CPI of .95. The project has spent
$25,000 of its budget so far. How much more money do you plan to spend on the project?
A. $59,210
B. $80,000
C. $84,210
D. $109,210

Answer : A

4. You are managing a software project. During a walkthrough of newly implemented
functionality, your team shows you a new feature that they have added to help make the
workflow in the product easier for your client. The client didn’t ask for the feature, but it
does look like it will make the product easier to use. The team developed it on their own time
because they wanted to make the client happy. You know this change would never have made
it through change control. What is this an example of?
A. Gold plating
B. Scope creep
C. Alternatives Analysis
D. Schedule Variance

Answer : A

5. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Project Management Plan?
A. Collection of subsidiary plans
B. Formal, written communication
C. A bar chart that shows the order of tasks and their resource assignments
D. Must be approved by project sponsor

Answer : C

6. When is the BEST time to have project kickoff meetings?
A. At the beginning of the project
B. When each deliverable is created
C. At the start of each phase
D. When the Communications Management plan is approved

Answer : C

7. The terms of union contracts are considered ______________ in your project plan.
A. Assumptions
B. Constraints
C. Requirements
D. Collective bargaining agreements

Answer : B

8. A Project Manager is at the project kick-off meeting. He confidently states the vision and mission for the
project. This PM is exhibiting the following leadership style:
A. Hierarchal
B. Authoritarian
C. Charismatic
D. Associative

Answer : C

9. Which of the following models of conflict resolution allows a cooling off period, but seldom resolves the
issue in the long term?
A. Problem solving
B. Withdrawal
C. Forcing
D. Smoothing

Answer : B

10. Group brainstorming encourages all of the following except:
A. Team building
B. Analysis of alternatives
C. Convergent thinking
D. Uninhibited verbalization

Answer : C

11. Crashing, and Fast tracking are techniques used in the following process:
A. Schedule Development
B. Activity Definition
C. Create WBS
D. Resource Allocation

Answer : A

12. A project manager is assigned a project with a team that has already been selected. The first thing the
project manager should find out about the team is?
A. What is each team member's favorite color
B. Each team member's objectives for working on the project
C. A list of each team member's tasks
D. Each team member's role in the project plan

Answer : D

13. Which of the following is not correct:
A. PMO - Program Management Office
B. RBS - Resource Breakdown Structure
C. RAM - Resource Assignment Matrix
D. RFP - Request for Proposal
E. TQM - Total Quality Management

Answer : C

14. Which of the following Human Resource process generates Roles & Responsibilities :
A. Human Resource Planning
B. Acquire Project Team
C. Develop Project Team
D. Manage Project Team

Answer : A

15. What is the Delphi technique?
A. A simulation technique.
B. A mathematical analysis.
C. A constrained optimization method.
D. A consensuas technique.

Answer : A

16. You have negotiated a major deliverable with a contractor several of your colleagues
have utilized in the past without problems. Its is critical the contactor meet the December 4th
deliverable.this is an example of :
A. Objective
B. Goal
C. Constraint.
D. Assumption.

Answer : D

17. As the project manager you will be required to report periodically to upper
management on the progress of the project. What item below will you require to report
your progress as the basis for the budget ,schedule ,resource allocation and scope
definition.
A. Precedence diagramming method.
B. project character.
C. Work breakdown schedule.
D. Project management plan.

Answer : C

18. Out puts from the initiation process includes:
A. project manager assigned ,project character, and product description.
B. constraints, assumptions, and product description.
C. Project character ,Constraints, and assumptions.
D.scope statement, project manager identified, and product description.

Answer : C

19. In which motivation theory do hygiene factors play a part?
A. Herzberg's
B. McGregor's
C. Theory Y
D. Maslow's hierarchy

Answer : A

20. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, self-actualization means self-fulfillment, growth and:
A. affection.
B. learning.
C. security.
D. stability.

Answer : B

Evaluate yourself with the above free pmp exam questions 6th edition, how much you have scored for project manager interview questions and answers will give you the idea to benchmark yourself and progress your learning in PMP. Looking for more pmp practice exam 2018, et me know through comments I will share more questionnaire.

 

What Is IoT?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

We are going to see IoT in everything. As per Gartner By 2020, IoT technology will be in 95% of electronics for new product designs.With the technology evolution surrounding the IoT, it will become increasingly possible to add IoT features to a product at minimal cost. As IoT is going be a major player in market and most of people and enterprise are also worried about security challenges of the internet of things. There are multiple threats and challenges of iot and how to face the iot challenges and solutions are identified.While security challenges in iot need to be sorted,due to challenges in determining security risks and exposure for IoT, current budgets for security spend is minimal.Most organizations already face information risks from Internet of Things (IoT) devices. In fact, almost 20% of organizations have detected an IoT-based attack in the past three years.

IoT Risks And Challenges:

We will list down the top iot security challenges in this tutorial.As all know security is one of the major problems with iot and key IoT adoption barriers for the enterprises.

Source:Pixabay

Security and Privacy:

Security is an essential pillar of the Internet and one that to be equally essential and the most significant challenge for the IoT. As Increase the number of connected devices increases the opportunity to exploit security vulnerabilities, as poorly designed IoT devices can expose user data to theft by leaving data streams inadequately protected.A latest research claims that by 2020, 25% of cyber attacks will target IoT devices.

Major security issues in iot have been raised that the IoT is being developed rapidly without appropriate consideration of the profound security challenges involved.Most of the technical security concerns are similar to those of conventional servers, workstations and smartphones. Security is the biggest concern in adopting Internet of things technology. As the Internet of things spreads widely, cyber attacks are likely to become an increasingly physical threat.The vulnerabilities include weak authentication (IoT devices are being used with default credentials), unencrypted messages sent between devices, lack of verification or encryption of software updates.

In a January 2014 article in Forbes, cyber-security columnist Joseph Steinberg listed many Internet-connected appliances that can already “spy on people in their own homes” including televisions, kitchen appliances,[185] cameras etc.Welcome to the era of the Internet of Things (IoT), where digitally connected devices are encroaching on every aspect of our lives, including our homes, offices, cars and even our bodies. To deal with all these unique challenges, there is a need for strict approach to security. A lot of users are ultimately going to compare the cost against the security.

IoT creates unique challenges to privacy, many that go beyond the data privacy issues, consumer devices such as tracking devices for phones and cars as well as smart televisions are capable of tracking your day today activities .The Internet of things’ potential for major privacy invasion is a concern.Consumers take a more active interest in protecting their privacy and demand IoT devices to be screened for potential security vulnerabilities and privacy violations before purchasing them.Consumers are increasingly worried about privacy risks and security concerns that outweigh the value propositions of IoT devices and they opt to postpone their planned purchases or service subscriptions of IoT devices or soutions. As Security and Privacy are major issues in IoT, Enterprises when developing their IoT systems really need to work on IoT security issues and solutions.

Regulations and Standards:

One of the key drivers of the IoT is data. The success of the idea of connecting devices to make them more efficient is dependent upon access to and storage & processing of data. Companies working on the IoT collect data from multiple sources and store it for further processing.Lack of proper Reguation and standards will open up the possibility for for privacy and security dangers. IoT regulation depends on the country. Several standards for the IoT industry are actually being established relating to automobiles because most concerns arising from use of connected cars apply to healthcare devices as well. Lack of standards and documented best practices have a greater impact than just limiting the potential of IoT devices.These are because of still early days for IoT in government and unclear business models, despite strong value proposition.Without the right standards to guide and regulate manufacturers the developers may design products that operate in disruptive ways and If they are configured or designed poorly, these devices may have huge consequences on resources they connect.

Existing and upcoming privacy laws, including the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), will dramatically impact an organization’s strategy, purpose and methods for processing personal data in IoT.

Lack of Interoperability:

Another one of the main internet of things challenges is IoT devices lacking interoperability.With numerous vendors, OEMs, and service providers in IoT business, it has become really difficult to maintain interoperability between different IoT systems.Sensors and connectivity are the integral components of IoT. But not every IoT soutions are equipped with advanced sensors and networking capabilities to effectively communicate and share data between different builds and manafucturers. It will be really challenging to identify a easy solution for this. However from end user perspective this is a really needed capability in a IoT devices.

In short as part of this artice we have seen the iot security problems and iot challenges in the real world.


In the tutorial Wireless Remote Control Lighting System | Smart Lighting Control Systems I have done the control of AC light using Raspberry Pi and Cayenne App. I got a request from my friend to control the Water Pumping motor at a specific interval. Currently they have to switch on and off the motor manually. So we will be working on AC motor and Raspberry pi which will act as automatic watering system. We are not making any plant watering system here.

You could have seen other articles on controlling DC Motors Using Python With a Raspberry Pi, however here we are using the Raspberry Pi to control AC electric power . The connections are almost similar to the light control system, you need to replace the light with motor and we will be using Python script.

Components Needed:

  1. Raspberry Pi
  2. 5V Relay Module
  3. AC Motor/Water Pump
  4. Connecting wires
  5. Power supply for Pi

SINCE 120/230V AC IS DANGEROUS, DO NOT TOUCH WIRES FROM OUTLET WHILE IT IS POWERED ON! AND ALSO RECOMMEND YOU TO CHECK WITH ELECTRICIAN FOR WIRING. YOUR SAFETY IS MORE IMPORTANT.

Automatic Water Pump Using Raspberry Pi:

For making automate motor control with raspberry pi, first connect the VCC of the Relay to GPIO Pin 2 and Relay GND to GPIO 39 which is GND in Pi. Connect the Raspberry Pi GPIO Pin 19 to Relay IN pin which will control the NO and NC connection of Relay . Connect the AC line 120/230V AC from Plug point to COM of Relay and other wire from NO or NC on relay to the Motor. The neutral from pug point will go directly to Motor.

Raspberry Pi Motor Control

Python Script For Raspberry Pi 3 Automatic Watering System:

The raspberry pi ac motor control will run based on interval we define in the script. What we are doing here is to capture the last run time of the motor in to a notepad and check that with current time. If the motor last run was  1 hour before the motor will start pumping the water for 15 min and will stop.

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import os
import sys
import datetime
import time
from time import sleep
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
GPIO.setup(17, GPIO.OUT)
runhour = (time.strftime("%H%M%S"))
add = 4000
file1 = open("/home/pi/Motor_Running_Project.txt","r",encoding = 'utf-8')
f = file1.read(6)
print(f)
file1.close()
intrunhour = int (f)
while True:

now = int(time.strftime("%H%M%S"))
print(now)
x = now - intrunhour
print(x)

       if x>=0:

         GPIO.output(17,GPIO.HIGH)
         print("program started")
         time.sleep(900)
         intrunhour = now + add
         nextrun = str (intrunhour)
         file1 = open("/home/pi/Motor_Running_Project.txt","w")
         file1.write(nextrun)
         file1.close()
         print(nextrun)
         GPIO.output(17,GPIO.LOW)

       else:
                print("program not started")

GPIO.output(17,GPIO.LOW)
GPIO.cleanup()

The Python program is also attached Motor Control With Raspberry Pi_Project.py.

For DC Motor Control With Raspberry Pi I will update in new tutorial.

What Is Digital Transformation?

Digital business transformation is the process of exploiting digital technologies and supporting capabilities to create a robust new digital business model. Digital Transformation is not necessarily about digital technology, but about the fact that technology, which is digital, allows people to solve their traditional problems. And they prefer this digital solution to the old solution. Digital transformation helps the organization through integration of digital technology into all areas of a business, fundamentally changing how you operate and deliver value to customers. It is also a cultural change.

Gartner predicts that by 2020, more than 30 billion devices will be connected to the Internet. The advent of digital business expands and evolves as the opportunities, threats and constraints of leveraging a business ecosystem. A digital business ecosystem is a marketplace of functions and information. It is a network construct whereby multiple value forms are exchanged for the benefit of all participants.

Digital transformation will look different for every company. Why digital transformation matters? There are a several reasons for a business may undergo digital transformation, but the most likely reason is also that they have to fight for survival and make their business future proof. Technology has driven this shift, and companies that want to succeed must understand how to merge technology with strategy. In this tutorial we will see what are the main top digital transformation trends which in turns gives you the details of  best technology to learn to keep stay ahead in technology.

Source: Pixabay

Digital Transformation Trends 2019:

The future is going to be exiting and unpredictable. Currently most of the big companies are putting lot of efforts and research on new technologies. The Top 5 future technology predictions 2020 are :

Autonomous Things or Intelligent Things:

Most of the organizations are gathering information to build their AI strategies, The use of AI to enhance decision making, reinvent business models and ecosystems and increase the customer experience will payoff for their digital initiatives. Generally AI systems magically perform any intellectual task that a human can do and dynamically learn much as humans do at best. AI consisting of highly scoped machine-learning solutions that target a specific task that can be optimized.

Autonomous things abbreviated AuT, or the Internet of autonomous things abbreviated as IoAT, is an emerging term for the technological developments that are expected to bring computers into the physical environment as autonomous entities without human direction, freely moving and interacting with humans and other objects.Autonomous things such as robots drones and autonomous vehicles uses Artificial intelligence to automate functions previously performed by humans. As an eg: the autonomous car addresses the main existing safety issues and creates new issues. It is expected to be much safer than existing vehicles, by eliminating the single most dangerous element which is the driver. Intelligent things can respond to real world conditions automatically.Intelligent things use AI and machine learning to interact in a more intelligent way with people and surroundings.

Some other examples are Intel’s use of a drone swarm for the opening ceremony of the Winter Olympic Games in 2018 and a plan for Dubai to use autonomous police vehicles that can deploy their own drones for surveillance.

Digital Twins:

According to Gartner, a digital twin refers to the digital representation of a real-world entity or system.DTO (Digital Twins of Organizations) is a dynamic software model that relies on operational or other data to understand how an organization operationalizes its business model, connects with its current state, deploys resources and responds to changes to deliver expected customer value. Digital twin refers to a digital replica of physical assets (physical twin), processes, people, places, systems and devices that can be used for various purposes.

Below are few definitions of digital twins, Refer the WiKi link and Gartner link.

Definitions of digital twins used in existing literature
Definition Authors
“A Digital Twin is an integrated multiphysics, multiscale, probabilistic simulation of an as-built vehicle or system that uses the best available physical models, sensor updates, fleet history, etc., to mirror the life of its corresponding flying twin” Glaessgen & Stargel, (2012)
“Coupled model of the real machine that operates in the cloud platform and simulates the health condition with an integrated knowledge from both data driven analytical algorithms as well as other available physical knowledge” Lee, Lapira, Bagheri, an Kao, (2013)
“digital twin is a real mapping of all components in the product life cycle using physical data, virtual data and interaction data between them” Tao, Sui, Liu, Qi, Zhang, Song, Guo, Lu & Nee, (2018)
“a dynamic virtual representation of a physical object or system across its lifecycle, using real-time data to enable understanding, learning and reasoning” Bolton, McColl-Kennedy, Cheung, Gallen, Orsingher, Witell & Zaki, (2018)
“Using a digital copy of the physical system to perform real-time optimization” Söderberg, R., Wärmefjord, K., Carlson, J. S., & Lindkvist, L. (2017)
“A digital twin is a real time digital replica of a physical device” Bacchiega (2017)

 

Digital twins integrate artificial intelligence, machine learning and software analytics  to create living digital simulation models that update and change as their physical counterparts change. A digital twin continuously learns and updates itself from multiple sources to represent its near real-time status, working condition or position.

Blockchain:

What is blockchain : Blockchain  is  an encrypted, distributed computer filing system , it is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography. Block chain certainly is real however may not be completely ready in 2018 for adoption in every industry. Blockchain is going to be technology that will make a real impact across industry sectors along with IoT. Blockchain is the invention from brain of a single person or a group of person know by pseudonym, Satoshi Nakamoto. Digital currency , Bitcoin is first majority used purpose however now industry is finding the potential use of it as technology. Blockchain is getting used in Cybersecurity, healthcare, financial sectors etc. for securing health records, control disease, patient data, cryptocurrency wallets.

Blockchain technology holds the promise to change industries, and although mosty we see often around financial opportunities. Blockchain has many potential applications in government, healthcare, content distribution, supply chain and more. However, many blockchain technologies are immature and unproven, and are largely unregulated.

How bitcoin works?

Bitcoin, probably the most well-known example of blockchain, records cryptocurrency transactions in a chain-of-blocks data structure where a block is a group of transaction records added every few minutes in a never-ending series. The ledger records the sequence of each transaction and every “coin” (virtual currency stored as information bits).

Immersive Experience:

Immersion into virtual reality is a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world. The perception is created by surrounding the user of the VR system in images, sound or other stimuli that provide an engrossing total environment.An immersive experience is an illusory environment that completely surrounds you such that you feel that you are inside it and part of it. Augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality are changing the way that people perceive and interact with the digital world.Whether we are playing a video game on our smartphone, video conferencing on our tablet, or watching sports on our Virtual Reality (VR) headset Immersion enhances everyday experiences, making them more realistic, engaging, and satisfying on all our devices.

Over the next years the focus will be on mixed reality, which is emerging as the immersive experience of choice, where the user interacts with digital and real-world objects while maintaining a presence in the physical world.

Augmented Analytics:

Augmented analytics focuses on a specific area of augmented intelligence, using machine learning (ML) to transform how analytics content is developed, consumed and shared. Augmented analytics is the future of data and analytics. As per Gartner Augmented analytics automates the process of data preparation, insight generation and insight visualization, eliminating the need for professional data scientists in many situations.