Project Management Processes, Process groups and Knowledge areas


A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to produce a unique product or.

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools & technique to the project activities to meet the project requirement. Project management enables the organization to execute the projects effectively & efficiently.

A project life cycle is managed by executing various project management activities like develop project charter, develop project management plan,  identify stakeholders, plan scope management, etc. and are known as project management processes. Every  project management processes will have one or more Inputs which will produce one or more Outputs using appropriate Tools & Techniques. The output of the process results in an input to another process or a deliverable of the project. Processes can be used once in the project like "close project or phase" is done only at the time of closing of the project or phase. Processes can be also performed periodically or performed continuously through out the project. Perform integrated change control is done when there is a change request,  Define activities are done continuously through out the project life cycle.

ITTO : Inputs, Tools and Techniques , Outputs

ITTO

Project Management Process Groups:

The Processes are grouped together in to five process groups. The Logical grouping of project management processes to achieve specific project objectives are called Project Management Process Groups. Below are the five process groups:

  1. Initiating Process group: The processes part of initiating process group are performed at the time of new project or new phase of existing project.
  2. Planning Process group: The processes part of planning process groups helps in defining the plan for the project like defining scope, planning for schedule, cost, procurement, communications etc.  This helps in defining the course for the project to achieve its objectives.
  3. Executing Process group: The processes in executing process group is performed to complete the defined work as per plan to satisfy the project stakeholders.
  4. Monitoring & Controlling Process group: As part of monitoring & controlling process group, the performance of project is tracked, monitored, reviewed & controlled. The variation from plan is derived & identify what changes are required to bring back the project on track.
  5. Closing Process group: The processes part of closing process group are done at the time of closing the project to close the project formally.

Project Management Knowledge Areas:

In addition to project management process group, processes are categorized in to knowledge areas. Depending upon the components processes, inputs, outputs, tools & techniques knowledge areas are identified & processes are grouped. There are ten knowledge areas:

  1. Perform Integration Management:  Integration management is one of important knowledge in which coordination of various processes & project management activities are combined, integrated .
  2. Project Scope Management: This knowledge area includes the processes to ensure scope is defined, include all work required, only the required work to complete the project and achieve the project deliverable's.
  3. Project Schedule Management:  In this knowledge area the processes helps to define the activities and timely completion of project.
  4. Project Cost Management: As part of Cost management processes it helps in planning, estimating , budgeting , managing and controlling the cost of the project so that project can be completed with in approved budget.
  5. Project Quality Management: The processes which are part of Project quality management knowledge area helps in planning, managing and controlling the project quality as per customer expectations.
  6. Project Resource Management: Resource management previously called as Human resource management, now consider both human and other resources.  The processes helps in identifying, acquiring and managing resource for the project.
  7. Project Communication Management: The processes is involved in planning , managing and monitoring of effective communication between stakeholders so that right information are reached to them.
  8. Project Risk Management: As part of Risk management processes risks in the projects are identified, analyzed, response are planned, implemented and monitored.
  9. Project Procurement Management: These processes are necessary for purchase of products , services etc from outside the project.
  10. Project Stakeholder Management: The processes of stakeholder management knowledge area are required to identify stakeholder that impact the project positively or negatively, analyze the expectation & their power to impact the project , appropriate measure is taken to keep them satisfied.

The grouping of processes in to Process groups & knowledge area gives us a good way to relating the activities , use the respective processes in the project according to respective scenario.

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