The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

In simple terms we can say IoT is a system of things integrated with sensors, softwares, electronics which are connected to each other & can exchange data or Information with other connected devices.

What is a Gateway?

A gateway is a piece of networking hardware used in telecommunications for telecommunications networks that allows data to flow from one discrete network to another. Gateways are distinct from routers or switches in that they communicate using more than one protocol and can operate at any of the seven layers of the open systems interconnection model (OSI).The term gateway can also loosely refer to a computer or computer program configured to perform the tasks of a gateway, such as a default gateway or router.

What is a IoT Gateway?

As IoT grows and billions of connected devices enter the world, one of the most critical components of future internet of things systems may be a device known as an IoT gateway. The importance of IoT gateways is understandable .

An Internet of Things (IoT) gateway is an integral part of an IoT ecosystem, handling communication with local sensors and remote users among a suite of other functions.

What is IoT edge gateway ? An Internet of things gateway provides the bridge between IoT devices in the field, the cloud, and user equipment such as smartphones. The IoT gateway provides a communication link between the field and the cloud and can provide offline services and real-time control over the devices in the field. Simple IoT gateway definition we can say IoT gateway aggregates sensor data, translates between sensor protocols, processes sensor data before sending it.

The interconnected devices communicate by using lightweight IoT gateway protocols like bus-based (DDS, REST, XMPP) and broker based (AMPQ, CoAP, MQTT, JMI) that don't require extensive CPU resources.To handle any needed protocol conversion, database storage or decision making, IoT nodes use separate IoT gateways in order to supplement the low-intelligence of devices.

The sensors generate huge amount of data per second and IoT gateway hardware provides a place to preprocess that data locally before sending it on to the cloud. When data is collected and analyzed at the edge, it minimizes the amount of data that needs to be forwarded on to the cloud and this is the use of iot gateway or we can say IoT gateway functionality.

IoT Gateway Architecture:

If you are thinking why you need an IoT Gateway, With IoT solutions, we have to deal with tons of devices working in the field and because the nature of these devices is very different like web, desktop, smart phones etc we need an intermediate architectural element that will act as a proxy between the world of field devices and the enterprise data center. That's why What we need is an IoT gateway.

The IoT gateway software or IoT gateway hardware is not just a dump proxy that forwards data from sensors to backend services. Sending all the information collected by sensors to the cloud or storage data center would be highly ineffective in terms of performance and network utilization. The IoT gateway will perform the pre-processing of information in the field, before they’re sent to the data center and it is the main function of the iot gateway.

An IoT ecosystem is made up of many components, or layers. The bottom layer contains the sensors and devices. The gateway acts as a secure intermediary between these sensors, devices and the cloud. The top layer handles overall monitoring and management of the IoT ecosystem, with analytics of the collected and persisted data, including applications.

IoT gateway architecture

IoT gateways consist of a hardware platform and an operating system and expose a rich set of services for your IoT application. The gateway software installed on the device is responsible for collecting data from the sensor, pre-processing that data, and sending the results to the data center.

IoT gateway architecture

A large number of manufacturers are involved in the IoT gateways design and production and some of iot gateway providers or iot gateway hardware manufacturers include CISCO, Harman International Industries, Advantech, ADLINK, Supermicro, Intel (intel iot gateway) , and NXP.

Are there any opensource IoT gateway or free iot gateway available ? Thingsboard is a iot gateway open source. The ThingsBoard IoT Gateway is an open-source solution that allows you to integrate IoT devices connected to legacy and third-party systems with ThingsBoard. ThingsBoard is an open-source IoT platform that enables rapid development, management and scaling of IoT applications. Refer the link for more details.

Refer the link for iot gateway wiki.

In this article we will talk about what is traditional project management ?, what is agile project management? and difference between traditional and agile project management.

What is a project?

project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to achieve unique product or services.

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools & technique to the project activities to meet the project requirement. Project management enables the organization to execute the projects effectively & efficiently.

Project Management Process Groups:

A classic project management Processes are grouped together in to five process groups. to differentiate between traditional and modern project management we should know about the project management process first. The Logical grouping of project management processes to achieve specific project objectives are called Project Management Process Groups. Below are the five process groups and basic principles of traditional project management.

  1. Initiating Process group: The processes part of initiating process group are performed at the time of new project or new phase of existing project.
  2. Planning Process group: The processes part of planning process groups helps in defining the plan for the project like defining scope, planning for schedule, cost, procurement, communications etc.  This helps in defining the course for the project to achieve its objectives.
  3. Executing Process group: The processes in executing process group is performed to complete the defined work as per plan to satisfy the project stakeholders.
  4. Monitoring & Controlling Process group: As part of monitoring & controlling process group, the performance of project is tracked, monitored, reviewed & controlled. The variation from plan is derived & identify what changes are required to bring back the project on track.
  5. Closing Process group: The processes part of closing process group are done at the time of closing the project to close the project formally.

Traditional project management:

Traditional project management or Waterfall project management is mainly used on projects where activities are completed in a sequence and there are rarely any changes.

The concept of traditional project management is based on predictable experience and predictable tools. Each project follows the same lifecycle, which includes five stages: initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing.The ultimate goal of waterfall project management was to make sure all the tasks are carried out in a predetermined orderly sequence.

The waterfall approach is linear where all the phases of a process occur in sequence. It depends on predictable tools and predictable experience. Every project follows the same life cycle which includes the stages.

Gantt chart is the most important technique in traditional project management. Gantt chart gives you a simple overview of a project. It is one of the most useful ways of presenting tasks and activities of the project on a timeline.

Agile project management and agile software development have become hot topics in recent years, however Agile might be the best approach for some projects, other projects still require the rigor of a more traditional approach.

The entire project is planned upfront and any scope for changing requirements is not appreciated. Acceptance of changes is one of the major difference factor in traditional project management vs agile. We can also say agile as modern project management , let see how differ traditional project management vs modern project management .


Traditional Project Management

What is Agile?

In simple terms agile meaning is able to move quickly and easily.

Agile software development is an approach to software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing and cross-functional teams and their customer(s)/end user(s).[1] It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, empirical knowledge, and continual improvement, and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change.

Scrum is a type of agile methodology. It is essentially an agile process framework.Scrum follows a set of fixed length iterations in which the product is developed. Each of these iterations are called as Sprint. Typically, each sprint is fixed somewhere within  1 week to 4 week.

Agile Project Management:

Agile project management is an approach based on delivering requirements iteratively and incrementally throughout the project life cycle.Agile approach shifts more quickly to execution and spends less time on planning.The basic concept behind Agile software development is that it delves into evolving changes and collaborative effort to bring out results rather than a predefined process.Scrum and Kanban are two of the most widely used Agile frameworks.Agile approaches empower those involved, and agile philosophy concentrates on empowered people and their interactions and early and constant delivery of value into an enterprise and this is one of the main difference between agile and waterfall project.

Why Agile ?

Some of the key benefit from project management Agile Methodology is below.

  • Adaptability
  • Time-to-market
  • Reduced costs
  • Customer satisfaction

Agile vs Waterfall project management


Agile vs Waterfall:

It is not always not necessary to use agile approach. A blended approach can bring synergy utilizing best of both Agile and Waterfall.

Key difference between agile vs traditional project management are

  • Waterfall is used when project is relatively familiar where as agile is used when project is relatively unfamiliar.
  • TPM or Traditional Project management is used when project have defined clear scope and deliverables where are Agile is used when there are  evolving changes in scope.
  • TPM is more of negotiation with customer where are Agile is a collaboration with customer.

As part of this tutorial we have covered agile project management vs project management . We will talk more about scrum and Kanban in coming tutorials.

Project Management:

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools & technique to the project activities to meet the project requirement. Project management enables the organization to execute the projects effectively & efficiently.

PMBoK has released 6th edition in 2018 and all project management enthusiast are looking for pmp 6th edition questions and answers to clear pmp exam.

You can refer the links project management questions and answers and project manager scenario based interview questions and answers for some of the sample pmp exam questions 6th edition.

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to produce a unique product or service

The characteristics of projects are

  • Specific start and end date
  • Has a defined objective
  • Series of tasks to achieve a defined outcome or objective

Projects are undertaken to full-fill objectives by producing deliverables. The deliverables may be tangible or intangible.

In this article I have tried to cover pmp practice exam with answers and hope this is useful for Project Managers and those who are pursuing PMP certification.  There are other pmp simulation exam free and other free practice tests for pmp online available however here I have given you 20 sample pmp exam questions and answers to test your knowledge.

1.Which is the BEST definition of quality?
A. A product made of very expensive materials and cost more.
B. A product made with a lot of care by the team who built it
C. A product that satisfies the requirements of the people who pay for it
D. A product that passes all of its tests and no bugs found.

Answer : C

2. Which of the following is NOT an input to Perform Quality Control?
A. Deliverables
B. Work Performance Measurements
C. Quality Checklists
D. Validated Changes

Answer : D

3. You are the project manager for a railroad construction project. Your sponsor has asked you for a forecast
for the cost of project completion. The project has a total budget of $80,000 and CPI of .95. The project has spent
$25,000 of its budget so far. How much more money do you plan to spend on the project?
A. $59,210
B. $80,000
C. $84,210
D. $109,210

Answer : A

4. You are managing a software project. During a walkthrough of newly implemented
functionality, your team shows you a new feature that they have added to help make the
workflow in the product easier for your client. The client didn’t ask for the feature, but it
does look like it will make the product easier to use. The team developed it on their own time
because they wanted to make the client happy. You know this change would never have made
it through change control. What is this an example of?
A. Gold plating
B. Scope creep
C. Alternatives Analysis
D. Schedule Variance

Answer : A

5. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Project Management Plan?
A. Collection of subsidiary plans
B. Formal, written communication
C. A bar chart that shows the order of tasks and their resource assignments
D. Must be approved by project sponsor

Answer : C

6. When is the BEST time to have project kickoff meetings?
A. At the beginning of the project
B. When each deliverable is created
C. At the start of each phase
D. When the Communications Management plan is approved

Answer : C

7. The terms of union contracts are considered ______________ in your project plan.
A. Assumptions
B. Constraints
C. Requirements
D. Collective bargaining agreements

Answer : B

8. A Project Manager is at the project kick-off meeting. He confidently states the vision and mission for the
project. This PM is exhibiting the following leadership style:
A. Hierarchal
B. Authoritarian
C. Charismatic
D. Associative

Answer : C

9. Which of the following models of conflict resolution allows a cooling off period, but seldom resolves the
issue in the long term?
A. Problem solving
B. Withdrawal
C. Forcing
D. Smoothing

Answer : B

10. Group brainstorming encourages all of the following except:
A. Team building
B. Analysis of alternatives
C. Convergent thinking
D. Uninhibited verbalization

Answer : C

11. Crashing, and Fast tracking are techniques used in the following process:
A. Schedule Development
B. Activity Definition
C. Create WBS
D. Resource Allocation

Answer : A

12. A project manager is assigned a project with a team that has already been selected. The first thing the
project manager should find out about the team is?
A. What is each team member's favorite color
B. Each team member's objectives for working on the project
C. A list of each team member's tasks
D. Each team member's role in the project plan

Answer : D

13. Which of the following is not correct:
A. PMO - Program Management Office
B. RBS - Resource Breakdown Structure
C. RAM - Resource Assignment Matrix
D. RFP - Request for Proposal
E. TQM - Total Quality Management

Answer : C

14. Which of the following Human Resource process generates Roles & Responsibilities :
A. Human Resource Planning
B. Acquire Project Team
C. Develop Project Team
D. Manage Project Team

Answer : A

15. What is the Delphi technique?
A. A simulation technique.
B. A mathematical analysis.
C. A constrained optimization method.
D. A consensuas technique.

Answer : A

16. You have negotiated a major deliverable with a contractor several of your colleagues
have utilized in the past without problems. Its is critical the contactor meet the December 4th
deliverable.this is an example of :
A. Objective
B. Goal
C. Constraint.
D. Assumption.

Answer : D

17. As the project manager you will be required to report periodically to upper
management on the progress of the project. What item below will you require to report
your progress as the basis for the budget ,schedule ,resource allocation and scope
A. Precedence diagramming method.
B. project character.
C. Work breakdown schedule.
D. Project management plan.

Answer : C

18. Out puts from the initiation process includes:
A. project manager assigned ,project character, and product description.
B. constraints, assumptions, and product description.
C. Project character ,Constraints, and assumptions.
D.scope statement, project manager identified, and product description.

Answer : C

19. In which motivation theory do hygiene factors play a part?
A. Herzberg's
B. McGregor's
C. Theory Y
D. Maslow's hierarchy

Answer : A

20. In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, self-actualization means self-fulfillment, growth and:
A. affection.
B. learning.
C. security.
D. stability.

Answer : B

Evaluate yourself with the above free pmp exam questions 6th edition, how much you have scored for project manager interview questions and answers will give you the idea to benchmark yourself and progress your learning in PMP. Looking for more pmp practice exam 2018, et me know through comments I will share more questionnaire.