Internet of Things vs Internet of Everything vs Industrial IoT vs Internet of Vehicles:

In this post we will talk about the definitions and brief about IoT, IoE , IIoT and  IoV . This will give you understanding on what is the difference between IoT and IoE, difference IoT and IoV, how IIoT and IoT is related.

IoT vs IoE vs IIoT vs IoV

What is IoT? or What is Internet of Things?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of things (physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators)  connected through internet which enables these things to exchange data. This creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

In simple terms we can say IoT is a system of things integrated with sensors, software's, electronics which are connected to each other & can exchange data or Information with other connected devices.

The things can be physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, electronic devices, sensors, actuators, software etc. which can be connected & exchange data.

What is IoE? or What is Internet of Everything?

The Internet of Everything (IoE) is a concept that extends the Internet of Things (IoT) .Internet of Things (IoT) emphasis on machine-to-machine (M2M) communications where as Internet of everything describe a more complex system that also encompasses people and processes,the intelligent connection of people, process, data and things.The concept of the Internet of Everything originated at Cisco.The Internet of Everything (IoE) is a concept that aims to look at the bigger picture.

Refer the cisco papers on IoE:

What is IIoT? or What is Industrial Internet of Things?

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) refers to the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies in manufacturing and related industries like agriculture, gas and oil, utilities, and transportation to create smart, self-regulating systems.The Industrial Internet of Things is opening up a new era of economic growth and competitiveness, this will transform companies and countries. We are looking at a future where the intersection of people, data and intelligent machines will have high reaching impacts on the productivity, efficiency and operations of industries around the world.

The basic idea is to give the machines the main power in our economy to make it “smarter” by gathering and analyzing data, often in real-time, and taking appropriate actions on the go.These machines can also identify when they need maintenance and perform self-maintenance. This has the effect of preventing breakdowns and reduce the downtime, increasing the overall production capacity and throughput.

Benefits of IIOT:

  • Increased Efficiency: Capturing of more data about their processes and products through the use of technologies such as sensors and the data collected will provide valuable information to transform business practices or make real-time decisions.
  • Increased Revenue: IIOT opens up new models of business and brings new sources of revenue. The IIoT can help to monetize additional services on top of existing products.
  • Change in Business Models: The IIoT allows automation of some processes that can improve time-to-market, measure performance and rapidly respond to customer needs.New services and products are emerging & enabling new approaches create great value for customers.
  • Reduce Risk Management and Safety Compliance : IIoT can help reduce risk and monitor safety protocol adherence by identifying the areas where Machines can learn to monitor and audit compliance procedures, flagging irregularities and issues much more quickly than humans can.

What is IoV? or What is Internet of Vehicles?

As the vehicles are increasingly being connected to the Internet of things (IoT), they form the Internet of vehicles (IoV).The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is an integration of three networks: an inter-vehicle network, an intra-vehicle network, and vehicular mobile Internet.Thus, IoV is the convergence of the mobile Internet and IoT. It is an emerging field for the automotive industry and an important part of the smart cities.

IBM is acquiring Red Hat, a major distributor of open-source software and technology, in a deal valued around $34 billion, the companies announced on Sunday.

According to a joint statement, IBM will pay cash to buy all shares in Red Hat at $190 each. Shares in Red Hat closed at $116.68 on Friday before the deal was announced.

The open source, enterprise software maker will become a unit of IBM’s Hybrid Cloud division, with Red Hat CEO Jim Whitehurst joining IBM’s senior management team and reporting to CEO Ginni Rometty.

IBM to acquire red hat


As we are using raspberry pi for most of our IoT Projects, I did thought that is Raspberry Pi only used for IoT projects, are there any other ways we can use the devices. Definitely yes is the answer and I have already started using Raspberry pi for lot of other things.Looking at the device, you know you can use it for so many project but you’re not sure how to do it. Let met list down some of the top uses of raspberry pi 3. I believe you will be using raspberry pi 3 or other modes like raspberry pi zero , Arduino , Esp8266 node mcu etc for your projects.


The simplest use for a Raspberry Pi is as a desktop computer.Depending on which model you buy, the Raspberry Pi is one of the world's least expensive and most versatile computers with just 512MB to 1GB of RAM and an SD card for storage. A good desktop computer can be useful, particularly for work-related tasks, but for many people space is a problem. What better computer to turn to than the box-sized Raspberry Pi.  Connect the pi to your TV through HDMI cable, connect as keyboard, mouse and to a WiFi you have good speed , fast booting computer. You also get applications like LibreOffice which is one of alternatives to Microsoft Office, claws email, chromium browser etc.

You need to install Raspbian or different OS to setup your raspberry pi.

Refer the tutorial raspberry pi as desktop pc/can you use raspberry pi as a desktop.

Raspberry Pi home screen

Media Center

We will learn how to set up Raspberry Pi as entertainment center solution (Kodi was XBMC) with the right accessories and software. Kodi is a free and open-source media player software application developed by the XBMC Foundation, a non-profit technology consortium. Kodi is available for multiple operating systems and hardware platforms, with a software 10-foot user interface for use with televisions and remote controls.

Turn a Raspberry Pi Into an Media Center in under 30 Minutes.Raspberry Pi is the perfect choice for a best home theater PC which are small, quiet, and inexpensive.Before you even hook up your Raspberry Pi to your TV,you’ll need to get the Kodi installed on normal Raspbian OS or you can use separate OS OpenELEC, or LibreELEC which is specifically designed for media center purpose. I will write a separate tutorial on how to setup the operating system for media center and configure the same.


Gaming Machine

You can convert your raspberry pi in to a gaming system, do you believe it ? You should.

Welcome to RetroPie. RetroPie allows you to turn your Raspberry Piinto a retro-gaming machine. It builds upon Raspbian, EmulationStation, RetroArch and many other projects to enable you to play your favorite Arcade, home-console, and classic PC games with the minimum set-up. For power users it also provides a large variety of configuration tools to customize the system as you want.

An emulator is software that makes a computer behave like another computer, or in the case of RetroPie a computer that behaves like a video game console such as the Super Nintendo. The RetroPie SD image comes pre-installed with many different emulators. Additional emulators may be installed from within RetroPie


Refer the tutorial on how to build a raspberry pi retro gaming emulation console/how to setup Retropie in raspberry Pi.

Web server

Apache is a popular web server application you can install on the Raspberry Pi to allow it to serve web pages.On its own, Apache can serve HTML files over HTTP, and with additional modules can serve dynamic web pages using scripting languages such as PHP.

You can setup your own website in Raspberry pi using apache webserver, php and WordPress. You can use no-ip and no need to worry about changing public ip.

Install apache using simple commands.

sudo apt-get update

Then, install the apache2 package with this command:

sudo apt-get install apache2 -y

This article will give you how to install webserver:

In future posts , I will share the tutorial how setup wordpress in Raspberry pi.

Security system

Home security system using raspberry pi, we can build using a PIR Sensor and PI Camera.This system will detect the presence of Intruder and quickly alert the user by sending him a alert mail. This mail will also contain the Picture of the Intruder, captured by Pi camera. Raspberry Pi is used to control the whole system.

Components Required:

  • Raspberry Pi
  • Pi Camera
  • PIR Sensor
  • Bread Board
  • Resistor (1k)
  • Connecting wires
  • Power supply

Refer the tutorial on simple Home Security email alert using Raspberry Pi .

Organizational Structure:

In an organization constraints are imposed to the projects through organizational structures and governance frameworks. The governance frame work is consisting of rules, policies, procedures, norms, processes etc.  The general management elements are included in governance framework and depending upon the organizational structure is selected. The performance of the project or organization depends upon the selection of appropriate types of organization in management. Determination of appropriate organizational structure type require a detailed study and trade off between different parameters. There is no one specific organizational structure fitting for the all projects, you will have to adapt and select the right structure for your project needs or as per your organizational framework.

Organizational structure types:

Each companies considers different /numerous factors in selecting the organizational structure, some of the factors are "alignment to organizational objectives", "competency and specialization", "control & authority" , "accountability & responsibility", "cost", "location", "communication and efficiency".

The main types of organizational structure are:

  • Functional organizational structure
  • Matrix organizational structure
  • Projectized organizational structure or Project oriented organizational structure

Matrix organizational structure can be further divided in to 3 types of organizational structure.

  • Weak matrix organization
  • Balanced matrix organization
  • Strong matrix organization

The classification is mainly depending upon the project managers authority, the role of project manager and budget, resource control in the project.

Main types of organizational structure


Organizational structure Project manager’s authority Resource availability PM’s role Budget control
Functional None or very little Little Part time or may not be available Functional manager
Weak matrix Low Low Part time Functional manager
Balanced Matrix Low to moderate Low to moderate Part time Mixed
Strong Matrix Moderate to High Moderate to High Full time designated Project Manager
Projectized or Project oriented High or Total Total Full time designated Project Manager


Functional vs Matrix vs Projectized


A functional organization structure is a hierarchical organization structure wherein people are grouped as per their area of specialization,the reporting relationships are grouped based on the specialty or functional area. Separate areas are established to take care of different concerns.A functional organization is the most common type of organizational structure. This is where the organization is divided into smaller groups based on its special functions such as IT, finance or marketing.

Functional organizational structure advantages and disadvantages:


  • Clearly defined career path
  • Greater specialization and skill development
  • More flexible work force
  • Only one manager and no conflict


  • Department work gets higher priority than project work
  • No career path for PM

A matrix organizational structure is a company structure in which the reporting relationships are set up as a grid, or matrix, rather than in the traditional hierarchy. This is a combination of functional and project oriented organizational structure, employees have dual reporting relationships - generally to both a functional manager and a project manager.

Matrix organizational structure advantages and disadvantages:


  • Better Coordination
  • Maximum utilization of resources


  • Higher potential for conflict
  • Greater communication complexity and overhead

A project organizational structure refers specifically to an organizational structure that has been set up in a manner in which the project manager leads the group and in which the project manager has the ultimate authority to make any and all decisions involving the organization.The structure facilitates the coordination and implementation of project activities. Its main reason is to create an environment that fosters interactions among the team members with a minimum amount of disruptions, overlaps and conflict.

Projectized organizational structure advantages and disadvantages:


  • Better Communication with in project
  • More loyal to the project goals


  • Less efficient use of resources
  • No home once the project is completed
  • Limited skill development

I have created this post to share Sample PMP questions and answers.

The PMP, or Project Management Professional, is an exam conducted by the Project Management Institute (PMI), is a globally recognized certification. The exam consists of 200 multiple choice questions that outline the five process groups (Initiation, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing).

10 PMP Sample Questions and Answers

Below are 10 examples of PMP questions and answers. If. you are considering working toward your PMP exam go through these PMP questions and also refer Sample PMP questions  Aug 2018 .

PMP exam dumps free download from here.

1. Which of the following is NOT true of obtaining project plan approval?

A. Until you obtain plan approval, you don’t need to put changes to it through change control
B. Change control makes sure that only approved changes can make it into the approved plan
C. Only one person needs to approve the Project Management Plan and that’s the Project Manager
D. It’s important for the entire team to buy into the Project Management Plan for it to be successful

Answer is C:

It’s not enough that the Project Manager approves of the Project Management Plan; it needs to be approved by all of the stakeholders in the project.

2. Which of the following shows roles and responsibilities on your project?

A. Bar chart
B. Resource histogram
C. RACI matrix
C. Human Resource Management Plan

Answer is C :

The RACI matrix shows roles and responsibilities on your project. RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed

3. Adam is a project manager on a software development project. About halfway through development, his team found that they had not estimated enough time for some of the technical work they needed to do. He requested that the new work be added to the scope statement and that the time to do the work be added to the schedule. The change control board approved his change. What’s his next step?

A. Update the scope and schedule baselines to reflect the approved change
B. Start doing the work
C. Gather performance metrics on the team’s work so far
D. Perform Quality Assurance

Answer is A:

When a change has been approved you always need to update the baseline and then implement the change

4. Which of the following is NOT a source of information about specific project constraints and assumptions?

A. The project scope management plan
B. Requirements documentation
C. The project scope statement
D. The scope baseline

Answer is A :

The project scope management plan tells you exactly how you’ll create the project scope, define the WBS, verify that the work has been done, and make changes to the scope. But it doesn’t tell you about specific assumptions that you and the team have made, or constraints on your project.

5. When do you perform stakeholder analysis?

A. When managing communications on your project
B. When developing the project charter
C. When creating the project management plan
D. When putting changes through change control

Answer is A:

Stakeholder Analysis is one of the tools and techniques of the Identify Stakeholders process. Identify Stakeholders is one of the processes in the Communications Management knowledge area.

6. Which is the BEST definition of quality?

A. A product made of very expensive materials
B. A product made with a lot of care by the team who built it
C. A product that satisfies the requirements of the people who pay for it
D. A product that passes all of its tests

Answer is C:

Quality management is all about making sure that the product you are building conforms to your customer’s requirements.

7. When are the most expensive defects most likely to be introduced into a product?

A. When the product is being assembled
B. When the product is being designed
C. When the quality management plan is being written
D. When the product is being reviewed by the customers

Answer is B:

The most expensive defects are the ones introduced when the product is being designed.This really makes sense once you think about how projects are run. If your team introduces a defect into a product while it’s being designed, then they have to go back and fix it it completely if they developed a product with defective design.

8. In which plan do you define the processes that will be used to keep people informed throughout the project?

A. Staffing Management Plan
B. Project Management Plan
C. Schedule Management Plan
D. Communications Management Plan

Answer is D:

The Communications Management Plan defines all of the processes that will be used for communication on the project.

9. Which enterprise environmental factor defines how work is assigned to people?

A. RACI matrix
B. Project Management Information System (PMIS)
C. Resource histogram
D. Work authorization system

Answer is D:

The work authorization system is a part of your company’s Enterprise Environmental Factors, It defines how work is assigned to people.

10. Which of the following is not a tool or technique of the Perform Quality Control process?

A. Inspection
B. Quality audits
C. Pareto charts
D. Statistical sampling

Answer is B:

Quality audits are reviews done on your project to make sure that you are following all of the processes in your company correctly. They are a tool of the Perform Quality Assurance process.

In This tutorial we will see how to build home security system with email notification. In my previous posts we have seen other IoT Projects with raspberry Pi and how to use Cayenne to create triggers. Here we will be using Python script to generate email when detecting any trespassers movement. We can call this a IoT project as simple Raspberry Pi based Intruder Alert System (home security system with email using raspberry pi, sending email using  raspberry pi and pir sensor).

The components needed:

1. Raspberry Pi
2. PIR Motion Sensor
3. Connecting wires
4. Power supply for Pi

We will be building this home security system using PIR Motion sensor. PIR sensor will detect the motion (presence of intruder) and will alert you immediately by sending an email.You can install the sensor in front of your door , or any other place and you will be notified about the intruder even if you are any where in the world.


First you need to Set up the Raspberry Pi 3 for the project. For setting up the raspberry pi with operating system follow my tutorial. Download the image and install it on the SD card, Connect to WIFI or ethernet cable.

PIR sensor has 3 pins, labelled VCC, OUT and GND. We will be using Raspberry PI pins 4 (5V) , 6 (GND) and 7 (GPIO4).Lets connect the PIR sensor to the Raspberry Pi, use Female to Female Jumper wires or you can use Breadboard in between the connections.Connect the PIN labelled as VCC on the PIR sensor to the 5V pin on the Raspberry Pi, connect the middle one labelled OUT to Pin GPIO4, and connect the Pin labelled as GND to a ground pin 6.


PIR Sensor + Email. Now its time to write the python code, to detect the motion and send email.

Open Python Idle and copy the below code in to it. Change the "from_email" , "from_email_password" and "to_email" to your respective emails and password.  We are using gmail here so you should use Gmail email address, otherwise it wont work. If you are using any other email address change the SMTP and port for the respective email configuration. I have written the same program in 2 different ways, both gives the same output. See the below.

IoT based home security system using raspberry pi

Program 1:

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import time

PIRSensor = 4


previous_state = False
current_state = False

while True:
        previous_state = current_state
        current_state = GPIO.input(PIRSensor)
        if current_state != previous_state:
              new_state = "HIGH" if current_state else "LOW"
              print("GPIO pin %s is %s" % (PIRSensor, new_state))
              import smtplib

              server = smtplib.SMTP('', 587)
              server.login("from_email", "from_email_password")

             msg = "Security Alert! INTRUDER!"
             server.sendmail("from_email_address", "to_email_address", msg)

Program 2: 

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import time
import smtplib

PIRSensor = 4


Current_State = 0
Previous_State = 0


      print "Waiting for PIR to settle ..."

      # Loop until PIR output is 0
      while GPIO.input(PIRSensor)==1:
              Current_State = 0

       print " Ready"

       # Loop until users quits with CTRL-C
       while True :

                # Read PIR state
                Current_State = GPIO.input(PIRSensor)

                if Current_State==1 and Previous_State==0:
                        # PIR is triggered
                        print " Intruder Alert!, Motion detected!"
                       #Send mail
                        server = smtplib.SMTP('', 587)
                        server.login("from_email_address", "from_email_password")
                        msg = "Security Alert! INTRUDER!"
                        server.sendmail("from_email_address", "to_email_address", msg)
                       # Record previous state
                elif Current_State==0 and Previous_State==1:
                       # PIR has returned to ready state
                       print " Ready"

                      # Wait for 10 milliseconds

except KeyboardInterrupt:
print " Quit"

# Reset GPIO settings

One of the common question will arise is normally we use GPIO.IN or GPIO.OUT in GPIO.Setup and Why to use GPIO.PUD_DOWN in GPIO.setup(sensor, GPIO.IN, GPIO.PUD_DOWN) not just GPIO.setup(sensor, GPIO.IN)?

An input gpio will float between 0 and 1 if it's not connected to a voltage.The pull-up/downs supply that voltage so that the gpio will have a defined value UNTIL overridden by a stronger force. You should set a pull-down (to 0) when you expect the stronger force to pull it up to 1 or you should set a pull-up (to 1) when you expect the stronger force to pull it down to 0. Otherwise the gpio will not change state and you'll never know about the external event.

In upcoming projects we can extend this home security system to integrate along with Raspberry Pi Camera to detect the intruder and capture the Image along with the email. We could also build live feed from the Camera to make it more impressive security system.